정기시장은 닷새나 열흘 주기로 정해진 날에 정해진 장소에서 판매자와 구매자가 만나 농수산물이나 일용품을 거래하는 공간이다. 또한 정기시장은 정보 교환이나 교제 등을 통한 사회적 관계가 형성되며 문화를 전수하거나 기분전환이나 오락적 기능이 수행되는 공간이기도 하다. 우리나라의 정기시장은 1970년경 1,000개소 수준까지 증가한 바 있으나, 그 이후 감소 추세로 바뀌었다. 1970년대 이후 경제가 빠르게 성장하면서 도시화와 인구 고령화, 교통 및 정보통신 발달, 금융서비스 증가, 농업생산 전문화와 유통근대화 등 사회적으로도 많은 변화를 경험하였다. 이러한 경제사회적 변화는 정기시장의 모습을 크게 변화시켰을 것으로 추정된다. 정기시장에 관한 포괄적인 보고서에는 1977년 한국농촌경제연구원의 전신인 국립농업경제연구소에서 발간한 ‘한국 농촌시장의 제도와 기능 연구’가 있다. 김성훈 박사가 책임을 맡은 이 보고서는 한국의 농촌정기시장에 관한 센서스조사에 기초한 종합연구서의 성격을 지닌다. 또한 동 보고서는 1941년 문정창 선생의 우리나라 시장에 대한 종합적 연구서인 ‘조선의 시장’의 대를 잇는 의미가 있었다. 김성훈 박사의 보고서가 발간된 이후 30년이 지난 현 시점에서 정기시장에 대한 종합적 연구가 이루어진 것은 연구사적인 측면에서도 의미가 크다고 본다. 아울러 이 연구는 2008년 개원 30주년을 맞는 한국농촌경제연구원에서 역점을 두고 추진한 사업이기도 하다. 이 연구는 정기시장의 구조와 기능에 대해 광범위한 조사를 실시함으로써 전국적인 현황을 파악하고, 1970년대 이후 정기시장 구조와 기능상의 변화 실태와 유형, 그리고 요인을 규명하기 위해 수행되었다. 아울러 이 연구를 통해 미래 정기시장의 변화 방향을 전망하였으며 정기시장을 활성화하기 위한 방향을 제시하였다. The purpose of the study is to find out the nationwide status of periodic markets through a nationwide survey on the structure and functions of periodic markets and analyze the structural and functional changes of periodic markets since the 1970s, types of changes, and factors causing the changes. In order to understand the distribution and operating status of periodic markets, representatives of nationwide periodic markets or local government officials responsible for managing periodic markets were surveyed through one-on-one interviews or phone calls. One hundred twenty seven merchants of 18 markets across the country were interviewed to find out the market coverage and features of transactions. To find out market functions and user behaviors, 700 visitors in 19 markets across the country were interviewed. The major findings of the study are as follows: As of the end of 2006, a total of 562 periodic markets were in operation across the country. This represents a 41% drop compared to 952 markets as of 1976. Periodic markets showed a trend of reduction nationwide and the trend was most significant in Chungcheong, South Gyeongsang and Jeju Provinces. By administrative area, the districts called Dong and Eup (small town) saw the number of periodic markets increasing, while the districts called Myeon (sub-division of county) saw the number dropping. This trend is attributable to the redrawing of administrative areas as well as the sizable reduction of periodic market size in Myeon. The average number of visitors to a periodic market is 1,029, which is 7.4% lower than 1,111 people in 1976. The average number of stores in a periodic market is 173, up 5.4% compared with 30 years ago. The average revenue of a periodic market per opening is 16.70 million won, which is 52.8% lower than before. The average size of periodic markets currently in operation is smaller than the 1970s. Meanwhile, the number of stores in Dong increased, but the number of stores in Eup and Myeon severely fell, indicating market size being differentiated between urban and rural areas. The functions of the periodic market have changed a lot. In the past, farm households were the main periodic market users, and they were sellers and buyers as well. These days in periodic markets, their role as sellers has been weakened. In other words, the periodic market's function of selling, collecting and releasing produce has been significantly weakened, and their retail distribution function for consumers has been relatively strengthened. The rural credit financing is mainly served by the National Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives and, as a result, the private credit financing role of periodic market is significantly weak. On top of economic functions, periodic market's non-economic functions have changed to a large extent. Socialization, information exchange, and other social functions, as well as the cultural and entertainment function of periodic markets, are not active as much as before. Amidst the overall weakness of periodic market functions, some functions are maintained as before or rather strengthened. Today, periodic markets provide opportunities for quality of life amenities to urban citizens, such as ‘time away from routine life’, ‘vitality’, and ‘reminiscence’, and function as the place for spending leisure time for rural elderly people and the place for socialization for small-size store merchants. Periodic markets are mainly used by full-time housewives (49%) and farmers (31%). The periodic markets are mostly used by the low-income class whose monthly household income is 1.87 million won. For urban users, their ages are evenly distributed, but rural users tend to get older. Tourist visitors have the monthly average income of 2.73 million won, up 46% of the regular periodic market users. Their average purchase amount is 67,740 won, up 54.1% compared with the regular market users. The regular market users go to periodic markets due to price, variety of items, freshness, and proximity (in that order). To the contrary, tourist visitors pointed out confidence in quality, freshness, price, and local specialty (in that order) for the reasons of visiting periodic markets. For the areas of improvement, restroom and parking facilities were pointed out. In the meantime, most farmers who sell produce at periodic markets run small-size farms, and 79% of them are women aged 60 or above. They mainly sell vegetables (71%) and grains (11%) at the markets. Due to the population reduction, the number of periodic markets per city and Gun (or county) dropped to 3.7 from 5.9 in 1976. The reduction in the number of periodic markets has caused merchants who are used to move around 3-4 periodic markets in turn to expand their travel miles. The travel distance of merchants was 8-12km in the 1970s, but it increased to 30-50km. A regression analysis was conducted against the factors determining market size, and it was found that the market size tends to grow when population and population density are high and that the market size tends to be smaller when the number of periodic markets is high within the same city and county. The markets opening on every seconds and sevenths of a month are larger than the markets held on other days, and the difference among Dong, Eup, and Myeon are found to be statistically significant. The analysis based on the market features above indicates that market size plays an important role, and periodic markets are divided into three types: market for broad area, market for city and county, and market for smaller areas such as Eup and Myeon. The market for broad area has 751 or above stores (merchants) and accounts for 3.3% of the total periodic markets. The market for city and county has 290 to 750 stores (merchants) and accounts for 12.7% of the total periodic markets. The market for smaller areas (Eup and Myeon) has less than 290 stores (merchants) and accounts for 84% of the total periodic markets.Going forward, periodic markets are predicted to dwindle away. While the speed of decline will slow down, some periodic markets will see more vitality facilitating the gap between periodic markets. To enhance the vitality of periodic markets, restroom and parking facilities should be improved. Accessibility needs to be improved to attract more tourist visitors. Holding cultural activities and events or running experience programs based on local resources could trigger more interest among tourists. Providing space for local farmers for their active engagement would lead to making periodic markets more lively. The central and local government's support to vitalize periodic markets would breathe more life into local economy and create harmony among local communities.
서론정기시장의 여건 변화정기시장의 분포와 운영 실태정기시장의 기능과 이용행태정기시장의 시장권과 거래 특성정기시장 사례분석전망과 대응방향요약 및 결론