국내 쇠고기 산업은 크게 한우와 육우, 그리고 수입쇠고기로 구분된다. 국내 육우산업은 생산 측면에서 몇 가지 구조적인 문제를 안고 있다. 첫째, 육우 사육두수는 비육농가들의 사육의지에 따라 결정되는 것이 아니라 착유농가들의 경영사정에 따라서 결정되는 구조이다. 둘째, 국내 육우 사육농가들의 생산비와 수익성은 국제 곡물 가격, 국제 유가, 환율 변동에 따라서 쉽게 변하는 구조를 가지고 있어 외부여건 변화에 민감하게 반응하는 취약점을 드러내고 있다. 더불어 고급육 위주의 한우와 달리 육우는 고급육 출현율이 낮아 국내 중등육 쇠고기 시장에서 수입육과의 경쟁이 불가피한 구조이다. 그러나 육우의 유통 체계와 판매장이 제대로 형성되어 있지 않아 경쟁에서 불리한 입장에 놓여 있다. 또한 소 및 쇠고기 이력추적제와 음식점 원산지 표시제 등의 시행으로 육우 고기는 과거 국내산으로 가질 수 있었던 프리미엄도 더 이상 누릴 수 없게 되었다. 이러한 여건 변화에 따라 2009년 6월 현재 국내 육우 사육농가는 5,700여 가구, 전체 육우 사육두수는 약 16만 두로 전년에 비해 약 3% 정도 감소하였다. 한육우 전체 사육농가가 약 18만 농가인 것에 비하면 육우농가의 비율은 약 3%에 지나지 않고, 육우 사육두수의 비율은 약 6%에 지나지 않는다. 그렇지만 도축물량을 기준으로 보면 육우의 비중은 2008년 기준으로 15%에 달해, 국내 소 산업에서 육우가 차지하는 비중이 결코 작지 않다. 이 연구보고서는 2008년 이후 위기를 겪고 있는 육우산업을 진단하고 개선방안을 제시하여 육우산업의 발전 방안을 모색하기 위하여 작성되었다. 주요 연구내용은 국내 육우산업 발전을 수립하기 위한 기초 자료를 제공하기 위하여 먼저 국내 육우산업 현황을 제시하고 분석하였다. 나아가 분석된 자료를 근거로 현재 발표된 정부 정책들을 재검토하고 이러한 정부 정책들이 얼마만큼 실효성이 있을 것인지를 소득 분석을 통해 논증하였다. 또한 일본의 쇠고기 산업 동향과 정책 검토를 통해 기존에 발표된 정책 이외에 필요한 보완 방안들을 추가적으로 제시하였다. The purpose of this study is to suggest guidelines for developing domestic Yukwoo industry focusing on Holstein male. Domestic Yukwoo industry has several structural problems in it. First, the number of breeding Yukwoo is determined not by the intention of the farmers who breed Yukwoo but by the managerial conditions of domestic dairy farmers. Second, the level of income of domestic farmers who breed Yukwoo is susceptible to exogenous shocks such as feed grain price, oil price in international markets, and exchange rates. Third, the marketing networks for selling domestic Yukwoo beef is not well organized. In addition, due to the enforcement of laws such as labelling origins of food sold in restaurants and beef history traceability, the farmers who breed Yukwoo cannot have premiums that has been imposed on domestic beef in the past any more. The farm income of Yukwoo decreased a lot in 2008 due to exogenous factors that increased the producing cost of Yukwoo beef. Together with cost increase in supply side, domestic consumers' trust on domestic Yukwoo beef was faded away after the enforcement of law of labelling origins of food sold in restaurants. This study is launched to make the domestic Yukwoo industry get out of the recession. To do that, this study provides all the detailed backgrounds of the domestic Yukwoo industry. The Korean government prepared a policy to promote domestic Yukwoo industry in December 2008. First of all, we review the current policy. In addition, this study finds out the causes that incurred the current recession in the domestic Yukwoo industry by analyzing the domestic Yukwoo beef market in demand and supply sides. Also, we review the policies that are executed in Japan for developing domestic cattle and beef industry and elicit some implications from the Japanese case. Finally, this study suggests a guideline that helps the domestic Yukwoo industry to develop again. One of the fundamental reasons to the current deadlock in domestic Yukwoo industry is the consumers' lowered trust to Yukwoo beef. The results of consumer survey show that only 16 percent of all 811 interviewees knows the exact definition of Yukwoo. Further only 9 percent of the interviewees has a chance to hear or participate in promotions for Yukwoo beef. These survey results inform us that the promotions for Yukwoo beef and delivering correct information are needed. The survey results show that the promotion for Yukwoo beef will increase the willingness to pay of consumer's to Yukwoo beef. The additional willingness to pay to Yukwoo beef is measured as 9 percent to Bulgogi and 4 percent to Kalbi. 69 percent of the interviewees answered they will buy more domestic Yukwoo beef if shops or places that are convenient for shopping are available in their neighboring places. By the way, 48 percent of the interviewees answered that they have never experienced buying Yukwoo beef. One of the reasons of no purchase is that they cannot believe the quality of Yukwoo beef. So the importance has to be put on improving and stabilizing the quality of Yukwoo beef. However, consumers still have concerns about the sales of mis-labelled products in domestic beef market. Hence, it is necessary to make all the marketing chains more transparent to make the domestic consumer have credibility on domestically produced beef including Yukwoo beef. This study analyzes the current market situation and forecasts the level of farm income in 2009. The decrease of feed grain price and Yukwoo calf will cut down the management cost by 17-21 percent. Many factors that stimulates demands for Yukwoo beef such as quality improvement, promotions, high price of Hanwoo beef, etc. may increase the Yukwoo price paid to Yukwoo breeding farmers by 10-20 percent. The farm income in 2008 was (-)440,000 won per live 600kg, but that will be increased to 300,000-660,000 won per live 600kg. The factors that increase the level of farm income will be continued for a few years and the condition of farm management will be better off after 2009 compared with that in 2008. One of the way for making more profits in each farm level is to change the current style of breeding management from feeding more grains and less forage to feeding less grains and more forage. Feeding less grains and more forage will lead to an extension of breeding period. However, by improving the quality of Yukwoo beef, the farmers can be more paid and their income will be increased as a result. But, the success of switching to a new breeding style depends on the farmer's efforts. Conclusively, this study gives several suggestions as a guideline for developing domestic Yukwoo industry. First, considering further opening in the domestic beef market, the domestic farmers need to pay more attention to improving the quality of Yukwoo beef to compete with the imported beef. Second, the current check off in Yukwoo industry is voluntary, not mandatory. The rule of current check off has to be changed to a mandatory rule to prevent the farmers from falling into a moral hazard and to incorporate all the farmers' efforts to develop the domestic Yukwoo industry. Third, the government has to strengthen the current laws regarding food labelling and traceability to restore consumers' trust. Fourth, healthy calf as an input is needed to produce the final good-graded beef. Hence, some measures have to be prepared to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in calf stage and to provide more healthy calf to the farmers who breed those calf. Fifth, the local packaging in regional base and transmitting to final consuming markets has to be welcomed and widespread to reduce the possibility of intentional mis-labelled products. Finally, various subsidies to develop and promote domestic Yukwoo industry need to be considered within the boundary of the international WTO rule.
제 1 장 서 론제 2 장 육우 사육 현황과 전망제 3 장 육우고기 소비 현황과 소비자 인식 분석제 4 장 일본의 쇠고기 산업 동향제 5 장 대내외 여건 변화에 따른 육우 농가 소득 전망제 6 장 육우산업 발전 방안에 대한 검토와 추가 제언제 7 장 요약 및 결론참고 문헌