GMO 생산·유통실태 파악 및 GMO표시 비용/편익분석 연구
- 한재환; 김배성; 주현정
- The global area of genetically modified (GM) crops has increased 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 114.3 million hectares in 2007. The principal countries that grow GM crops are USA, Argentina, Brazil and Canada in order. The four major GM crops are soybean, maize, cotton and canola. GM soybeans occupied 51.3% of the global area of GM crops in 2007, followed by maize at 30.8%, cotton at 13.1% and canola at 4.8%. The area of GM maize in the EU in 2007 increased by 76.7% compared to 2006. Korea imports maize mainly from USA, China and Brazil, and USA and Brazil are major soybean exporters to Korea as well. In 2008, Korea imported GM maize primarily from USA, and GM soybeans from both USA and Brazil.In Korea GM products are identified through the detection of GM genes and heterologous proteins in final products. Countries with a high level of self-sufficiency of grains tend to have more stringent adventitious presence in GM products, and vice versa. Over the 2008/2009 growing season, the lowest level of global maize stock for six years was recorded, and USA and Brazil occupy a predominant weight in terms of production and export in the world market. In addition, the global production and export of soybean are dominated by USA, Brazil, and Argentina. It is expected that the global area of Non-GM maize and soybeans will consistently decrease, while an adoption rate of GM maize and soybeans will continue to increase. Accordingly, prices for Non-GM maize and soybeans will grow, and it is likely that Korea confronts difficult circumstances in importing Non-GM maize and soybeans in the future. With 1,080 consumers surveyed this study shows that the level of knowledge about GM products among domestic consumers is low. Most consumers areconcerned about the safety of GM products, and want to strengthen safety assessments. In addition, consumers obtained information related to GM products mainly via the mass-media, and consumers have the highest level of trust toward consumer/environment groups out of several GM institutions. Especially, consumers think that 3% threshold in GM products is low and should be higher. The survey indicates that when consumers purchase GM products, economic factors play a significant role. To prevent GM products from commingling with Non-GM products, it is necessary to separate the production, harvesting, storage, handling and processing of GM products and Non-GM products. It is judged that identity preservation (IP) systems create an additional cost to seed producers, commercial farmers, grain elevators and handlers, processors and food manufactures. Cost/benefit analysis demonstrates that social cost exceeds social benefit as standards get more stringent. The importation of Non-GM maize and soybeans will pose significant difficulties for Korea. Potential countries that can export Non-GM maize and soybeans are USA, Brazil and Argentina, but Brazil and Argentina do not satisfy a requisite for export to Korea. On the other hand, the cultivated area of GM maize and soybeans in USA is continuously expanding. Therefore, considering the points mentioned above, it would be premature to set more stringent threshold in GM products.
- 제1장 서 론제2장 국내 GM농산물 생산, 유통 실태 및 GMO표시제도제3장 Non-GM옥수수와 대두 수입여건 변화와 중장기 전망제4장 GM농식품에 대한 소비자 및 업체 인식 조사분석제5장 GMO 비의도적 혼입율 감축에 따른 경제적 영향분석제6장 비의도적 혼입율 감축의 운용방안제7장 요약 및 결론참고문헌부록
- KREI 보고서
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