우리나라의 농식품 R&D는 60~70년에 걸친 녹색혁명 및 주곡자립 달성에 기여하였고, 시설원예 및 축산업의 발전 등 농식품 산업의 성장, 발전을 견인해 왔다. 미래에도 농식품 R&D는 농업 성장세 둔화, 시장개방, 지구온난화에 따른 기후변화, 에너지 및 자원 문제 등 국내외적인 여건 변화에 대한 적절한 해결책을 제공하고, 미래 농식품 산업의 성장, 발전을 이끄는 중요한 역할을 담당해야 한다. 이를 위해서는 농식품 R&D 체계가 미래지향적으로 탈바꿈되어야 하고, R&D의 효율성도 더 향상되어야 한다. 이러한 맥락에서 농업여건을 둘러싼 환경변화를 고려하고, 기술진보의 관점에서 기존에 개발된 농식품 과학기술의 영역과 내용을 평가하고 미래기술로의 발전 가능성과 좌표를 설정함으로써 기술개발의 방향과 추진 전략을 수립할 필요가 있다. 이 연구보고서에는 국내외 농식품 과학기술의 동향을 검토하고 미래의 좌표를 설정하여 미래 R&D 수요를 전망하고, 농식품 R&D의 정책과제와 방향을 제시하고 있다. 이를 위해 R&D의 공공 부문과 민간 부문의 역할을 재조명하였고, 미국, 네덜란드, 일본의 사례를 분석하여 시사점을 도출하였다. 이 연구에서는 농식품산업의 범위를 동·식물 자원으로부터 생산되는 농축산물, 농식품을 포함한 식·의약품 등의 제품, 저장·유통 등을 통해 최종 소비자까지 전달되는 가치사슬의 전체 과정을 대상으로 하였다. Korean agriculture has been facing many challenges including sluggish growth of agriculture, market opening, climate changes, and energy and resource shortage problems. Agricultural R&D should give appropriate solutions to these lessons and lead to agricultural growth. This study aims to foresee future R&D demand and suggest policy lessons and directions for agricultural R&D. The scope of agricultural R&D needs to be extended encompassing various agricultural downstream and upstream industries. Like other many developing countries, agricultural R&D was carried out by the public sector mainly due to its public good nature in Korea. However, as the general and agricultural economy have developed, the role of private sector becomes important. For meeting agricultural R&D demand, the private sector should take part in agricultural R&D actively. The government also needs to support private sector's participation in agricultural R&D. In Korea, national agricultural R&D has been carried out by several institutes including the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MIFAFF), Rural Development Adminstration (RDA), and Korea Forestry Research Institute (KFRI). Because of this, many problems have been pointed out: research subject duplication, waste of research fund, and lack of competition and policy leadership. In September 2009, the Korean government established the Korea Institute of Planning & Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPEI) to improve the efficiency of agricultural R&D. This institute is supposed to plan and coordinate national agricultural R&D activity. The budget for agricultural R&D accounts for about five percent of MAFFF budget in 2009. The share of RDA in agricultural R&D takes up the most with 60 percent. In terms of budget source, the public agricultural R&D budget accounts for 68.1 percent of total agricultural R&D budget, followed by universities with 27.1 percent, and the private sector of 3.0 percent. According to this study, the share of agricultural R&D budget should be increased to about 10 percent of MAFFF's total budget for 2 percent growth of agriculture every year. There are 884 private research institutes performing agricultural R&D. They account for 5.3 percent of total private research institutes. The problems of transferring and commercializing agricultural technology include shortage of available technology for sale, long period of agricultural research, small size of agricultural market, and uncertainty of market. It is surveyed that the private research institutes need research fund support and assistance in the commercialization of developed technology and expanded participation in national research projects. According to the survey of this study, the levels of technology in 'cultivation & production,' 'breeding,' and 'soil & fertilizer & pesticide' are relatively high, while those of 'energy & environment,' 'bio-engineering,' 'bioenergy' are relatively low. After ten years from now, the technology gap between developed countries and Korea is expected to be significantly narrowed in the fields of ‘breeding,’ ‘cultivation & production,’ ‘soil & fertilizer & pesticide,’ and ‘post-harvest technology.’ However, the technology gap in ‘bioenergy,’ ‘BT & IT & NT,’ and ‘energy & environment’ will remain large. The study reviews other countries' cases of agricultural R&D system: the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan. Three implications are derived. First, those countries have continuously reformed their R&D system to cope with changes in internal and external conditions. A large part of national research functions has been transferred to the private sector. Second, in all cases, the competition principle in distributing R&D budget has been reinforced. In the U.S., for example, the competitive fund has been expanded, while the formula fund has been declined. Third, the private sector actively participates in agricultural R&D. The strong cooperation among private sector, universities, and government makes it possible. At the farm level, the demand for marketing and management, environment-friendly farming, mechanical technology, and safety seems to be high. According to the survey, the respondents answered that ‘processing & marketing,’ ‘resources & production,’ ‘production system,’ and ‘consolidation technology’ should be given priority in the short term. In the mid and long term, ‘consolidation,’ ‘processing & marketing,’ ‘resource & production,’ and ‘production system’ were the order of priority for R&D investment. The respondents pointed out that ‘breeding,’ ‘BT & IT & NT,’ ‘energy & environment,’ ‘post-harvest technology,’ and ‘bioenergy’ were important for agricultural R&D in the short run. They thought that ‘BT & IT & NT,’ ‘bioenergy,’ ‘breeding,’ ‘energy & environment,’ and ‘climate change & ecology’ should be given the most priority. The future demand for agricultural R&D investment was calculated using a macro-economic model. The coefficient of R&D stock in the total agricultural productivity function was 0.05. It means that 20 percent increase in R&D investment is needed to increase 1 percent of total productivity. It is also analyzed that the contribution of R&D stock to the growth of agricultural GDP was 35.1 percent during 1980~2006. The study suggested that agricultural R&D budget should be increased by 8.5 percent annually to increase agricultural GDP by 2 percent every year. This study suggests that the policy goal for agricultural R&D is to build an effective agricultural R&D system which leads to a competitive agri-food industry. For this, four points should be reiterated. First, the agricultural R&D system needs to be further reformed for establishing a demand-oriented R&D system, minimizing research duplication, and enhancing transparency of R&D budgeting. Second, the agricultural R&D budget should be expanded and the priority principle needs to be applied for allocating R&D budget. Third, the government effort to transfer and commercialize technology needs to be promoted. Fourth, the base for agricultural R&D including building D&B for agricultural R&D, strengthening interdisciplinary and international joint research, and nurturing research manpower should be established.
제1장 서론제2장 농식품 R&D의 개념과 의의제3장 우리나라 농식품 R&D의 여건 변화제4장 우리나라 농식품 R&D 현황과 기술수준제5장 주요 선진국의 농식품 R&D 추진체계와 정책제6장 농식품 과학 기술의 미래 예측과 R&D 수요제7장 농식품 R&D 정책 방향과 과제제8장 요약 및 결론부록 1. 농식품 기술수준 및 수요에 관한 전문가 조사표참고문헌