농어업 부가가치의 새로운 창출을 위한 식품산업의 중장기 발전전략(1/5차연도): 식품산업의 구조와 변화를 중심으로
- Mid/long-term Development Strategies of Food Industry to Create New Added Values in Agricultural and Fisheries (Year 1 of 5): Centering on Structure and Changes of Food Industry
- 최지현; 이계임; 김경필; 국승용; 조소현; 김병무; 이명헌; 김성용
- 식품산업은 가공·외식·식재료·유통 등의 활동을 통해서 원료농산물을 이용하여 농가소득 증대에 기여하고, 농업과 농산물의 가치를 국내외로 전파함으로써 농업발전에 기여한다. 농업과 식품산업은 농식품의 생산부터 유통, 소비과정을 총괄하는 푸드시스템(food system)의 중요한 구성 주체이다. 식품산업과 농어업의 연계전략은 국내 농수산물의 품질 및 가격경쟁력을 높임으로써 국내 농산물 이용률을 향상시켜 국내 농어업의 부가가치를 높이는 방향으로 전개되어야 할 것이다. 최근 수입농산물의 증가로 식품산업 분야에 국내산 원료사용은 지속적으로 감소하고 있지만 소비자의 안전식품에 대한 수요가 증가하고 있고, 원산지 표시확대로 외식 시장에서의 국산 식재료 사용요구가 높아짐에 따라 식품산업과 연계한 산지의 적절한 대응책 마련 등이 시급한 과제로 등장하고 있다. 농업의 부가가치 창출과 식품산업의 발전을 위해서는 푸드시스템 내에서 농업과 산업 간의 지속적이고 안정적인 거래관계가 형성되어야 하며, 이를 위한 실질적인 연계 발전전략 제시가 필요하다. 이 연구보고서에서는 5년 동안 수행되는 장기과제로서 농어업의 고부가가치화 실현을 위해서 식품산업과 전후방 연계산업의 당면문제를 도출하고, 발전전략을 제시함으로써 향후 식품산업 연구와 관련정책 개발에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하는 내용을 담고 있다. 1년차 연구는 예비분석의 성격으로 제조업, 유통업, 외식업 등 식품산업 업종과 제조업 부문별 구조변화 및 성과분석을 통해 식품산업의 거시적인 구조변화와 특성을 조명하는 것이 주목적이다. 이와 더불어 식품제조업 부문과 농업의 연계, 소비자의 국내산 식품에 대한 평가 등을 통해 식품산업과 전후방 산업과의 연계관계를 검토하여 2?4년차 연구대상 식품산업 부문을 선정하고자 하였다. 그 동안의 식품산업 연구가 단편적이고 부분적인 연구에 그친 반면, 이 연구는 다양한 통계 원자료를 분석함으로써 식품제조업과 외식업뿐만 아니라 식품유통업까지 산업 구조변화를 폭넓게 분석했다는 점에서 선행연구와 차별성을 지닌다.
As a long-term project spanning over five years, this study was carried out to provide basic data required to conduct research on the food industry and to develop relevant policies going forward. The aims of the study include① deriving current issues of the food industry and its downstream/upstream sectors and ② and proposing development strategies to materialize a high-value-added transformation of the agricultural and fishery industries.Given its characteristics as a preliminary analysis, the first-year study is mainly intended to examine macroscopic changes in the structure and properties of the food industry by analyzing structural changes and market performance of each sub-sector of food industries such as food processing, distribution and food service sectors. Moreover, in this study, we aimed to select processing sectors for the second-to-fourth year studies by investigating the linkages between the food industry and its downstream/upstream sectors after studying the connection between the food processing sector and the agricultural industry and consumers' evaluation of domestic products. Although previous food industry researches had been fragmentary and partial, we differentiated this study from other studies since we broadly analyzed changes in the industrial structure of the food distribution sector as well as the food processing and food service sectors, with diverse statistical raw data.For our analysis, we categorized the food industry into food processing, food distribution and food service sectors, and then subdivided each sector into businesses according to the Standard Industry Classification. The food processing sector generally had substantial influences on agricultural, forestry and fishery industries (which provide raw materials). Meat processing and dairy farming, in particular, vastly affected the livestock industry. The food processing sector had minimal impact on other businesses due to high contribution of final consumers to product sales, whereas the food service sector's influence on production of other businesses was nearly 2.5 times the overall industry average.Within the food processing sector, meat and grain processing businesses contributed much to the shipment amount and value-added. Beverage and seasoning processing businesses contributed much to the shipment amount and value-added despite relatively smaller numbers of companies and employees compared to other businesses.Companies with less than 10 employees occupied 55% of the total food processing companies, while companies with 100 employees or more accounted for merely 3% to the food processing sector. However, companies with 100 employees or more generated 47% of total sales, whereas companies with less than 10 employees generated only 12%, This indicates properties of a paltry industrial structure.In the food distribution sector, wholesalers account for 25% of total employees, 49% of total sales, and 34% of total value-added. General retailers, on the other hand, account for 49% of total employees, 40% of to the total sales, and 45% of total value-added. In the meantime, Korean food restaurants dominate the food service sector, occupying nearly 60% of total companies, employees, sales and value-added.The food industry contributes 5% to the national value-added and 10% to the number of employees nationwide. The food processing and service sectors made the highest contribution of 2.5% to the value-added and 6% to the number of employees, respectively.According to our analysis, the food processing sector had the higher concentration ratio than the manufacturing industry. The beverage and seasoning processing industry, in particular, was found to have a relatively higher concentration ratio as the top three companies in each business contributed approximately 50% to the total shipment amount. The food processing sector ranked the first in labor productivity, followed by the food distribution and food service sectors. Since the 1990s, the gap between food processing companies of different sizes grew substantially because large-sized companies were able to quickly boost labor productivity. The total factor productivity of the food processing sector is plunging, and according to multi-variable index analysis, its gap with the total factor productivity of the manufacturing industry as a whole is further expanding. Labor productivity is climbing in food processing in contrast to a declining trend in the food distribution sector. A steady level of labor productivity is maintained in the food service sector.Our financial analysis of the food industry showed that the industry did not have favorable growth, profitability and stability. Nevertheless, the recently growing functional food processing and other food processing (such as ready-to-cook for lunch boxes and other meals) recorded a relatively high profitability.In the food distribution sector, profitability of general retailers has been gradually increasing. In the food service sector, the institutional cafeteria business has been growing rapidly with a relatively higher profitability. In addition, the R&D intensity of the food processing sector has recently been surging, but the size of R&D efforts is clearly lower than the processing industry's average, which appears to be in line with the aforementioned drop in the total factor productivity.We studied the degree of connection between the food industry and the agricultural industry (the downstream industry of food processing and food service sectors) through domestic farm produce usage rates and raw material transportation passageways. In the food processing sector, domestic poultry, pork, red chilli pepper powder and Korean cabbages were highly used, whereas domestic rice, beans and beef were used relatively less since imported raw materials were favored due to better prices as well as the consistent quality and stable supply. Sales and raw material usage rates displayed a negative correlation, implying that large-sized companies used more imported raw materials. The food service sector used a lot of imported beef, poultry and seafood mainly owing to better prices and an insignificant difference in consumer preferences to domestic and imported seafood. According to our price sensitivity of processed food, domestic food materials were favored if the price difference between domestic and imported food materials stayed within 1.5x.Given our analysis on the linkages between the downstream/upstream industries and the food industry, we found a considerable number of competitive processed products made of only domestic raw materials in the market. Based on our survey conducted on food processing companies and consumers, we learned that domestic raw materials for rice cakes, tofu, fermented soy paste, red chilli pepper paste and beef had competitiveness. Thus, these food categories should be able to contribute to boosting farm income by enlarging consumption of processed food if proper quality control and supply systems were established.Our analysis results indicate that businesses related with the processing of meat, grains, fruit, and vegetables should be capable of expanding productivity and the value-added in the agricultural industry. Therefore, we intend to continue studying these businesses in the second- and third-year studies going forward.
- 제1장 서 론제2장 식품산업의 여건변화제3장 푸드시스템과 식품산업의 연계구조제4장 식품산업의 구조변화제5장 식품산업의 생산성과 경영분석제6장 식품산업과 농어업의 연계구조와 소비자 평가제7장 요약 및 결론부록 1. 정부지원 가공업체의 원료조달 및 판매구조부록 2. 농가 가공원료 출하실태 및 의식부록 3. 지역농업과 식품제조업 연계사례부록 4. 연구대상산업 부문의 검토부록 5. 국산 식재료를 사용한 가공식품과 외식관련 소비자 조사참고 문헌
- KREI 보고서
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농어업 부가가치의 새로운 창출을 위한 식품산업의 중장기 발전전략(1/5차연도): 식품산업의 구조와 변화를 중심으로.pdf (2.97 MB)