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dc.contributor.other다니엘 썸너-
dc.description.abstract미국의 농업정책은 미 국내뿐 아니라 많은 나라에 영향을 미치기 때문에 새로이 제정되는 2012년 미국 농업법(Farm Bill)에 관심을 가질 필요가 있다. 2008년 농업법은 2012년 9월 말로 만료되는데 상원과 하원농업위에서는 각각 별도의 농업법이 통과되었지만 전체 합의에는 이르지 못하여 기한 내에 새로운 농업법이 통과되지 못하였다. 2012년 농업법 논의과정에서 미국은 막대한 재정적자를 줄이고, 농산물가격이 높아 농가경제가 양호한 상황에서도 고정직불금이 지급되는 문제점을 개선하기 위해 농업에 대한 보조를 줄여야 한다는 주장이 많이 제기되었다. 하지만 현재 마련된 상·하원 2012년 농업법안은 2008년 농업법에 의한 재정지출의 2∼3%만 줄이는 소극적인 개혁안으로 평가받고 있다. 아직 확정된 내용은 아니지만 상·하원 농업법안 모두 기존의 직접적인 농가소득 및 가격지지 정책을 개혁하는 대신에 생산 위험과 가격 위험에 동시에 대응할 수 있는 수입보상제도를 새롭게 제안하고 있으며, 식품영양지원제도와 환경보전 정책, 바이오연료에 대한 지원도 유지하고 있다는 점은 특기할 만 하다. 새로운 농업법이 기한 내에 대체되지 못하였기 때문에 미국은 잠정적으로 2008년 농업법의 유효기간을 1년 연장하기로 하였고, 2013년에 본격적인 논의를 통해 새 농업법을 확정할 것이다. 미국은 WTO/DDA 협상에서 보조금을 대폭 감축해야 하는데 이를 어떻게 2012년 농업법에 반영할지도 많은 관심을 끌고 있다.-
dc.description.abstractSince 1949 many provisions of U.S. agricultural policy have been reauthorized every few years as primarily as temporary amendments of Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1938 and the Agricultural Act of 1949. Many provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill expired on September 30, 2012 (the end of the fiscal years for the U.S. federal government). Others will expire on December 31, 2012. The House of Representatives Committee on Agriculture passed a bill out of their committee in the middle of the summer, 2012 that was much like the Bill that passed the full U.S. Senate in the early summer. However, the leadership of the House refused to schedule the bill for consideration. This delay was in part because many members of the House objected to high spending on food programs and some objected to farm subsidy provisions as well. The two bills continued food subsidy programs with little change and authorized continuing environmental and conservation programs. The commodity programs would be modified by eliminating $5 billion per year in direct payments to those with a product history in grains, oilseeds and cotton and replacing that (and ineffective prices supports and price-based income supplements) with “shallow loss” payments that apply when revenue (or price) fall below recent high levels. The new programs could be excessively expensive or have no budget cost depending on yields and prices for major covered commodities. These “shallow loss” subsidies are designed to supplement on top of heavily subsidized crop insurance programs that cover deeper revenue and yield losses. A special provision for the dairy industry would add a supply management quota program requiring periodic cuts in milk producers. Many policy advocates who favor the provisions of the farm bills under consideration argued for passage of the new legislation as soon as possible. They are concerned that in a lame duck session and especially in a new 2013 congressional session, budget pressures will dominate and the budget for farm and food subsidies will be cut substantially. There is a chance that with more time and less election pressure, the farm subsidies will be cut rather than readjusted to spend less on direct payments and more of revenue-based insurance-like support. More pressure to cut crop insurance subsidy rates may also develop as the budget exposure of these program becomes more apparent. Farm Bills are commonly delayed. The 1985 farm bill became law on December 23, 1985, the “1995 Farm Bill” actually became law in the spring of 1996, and the 2007 farm bill did not actually take effect until June of 2008. So, the current impasse was more like business as usual than an aberration. Nonetheless, there is much policy and political concern on the part of advocates of specific policy provisions. Generally those who favor the policies included in the Bill that passed the U.S. Senate and the similar bill that passed the House Agriculture committee express the most concern about the farm bill delay. Others such as Washington Post and other farm subsidy skeptics are pleased that more time has been allotted to debate the course of farm and food subsidies and regulations. Researchers: JooHo Song, JeongBin Im, HyunOk Lee, Daniel Sumner, Hanul ParkResearch period: 2012. 8. - 2012. 12.E-mail address: jhsong@krei.re.kr-
dc.description.tableofcontents제1장 서론제2장 미국 농업법의 의미와 특징제3장 2012년 농업법 제정 동향과 전망제4장 2012년 상·하원 농업법안 비교분석제5장 농업법과 관련된 주요 이슈제6장 요약 및 시사점-
dc.title2012년 미국 농업법(Farm Bill) 제정 동향과 시사점-
dc.title.alternativeProspects for the 2012 U.S. Farm Bill and Implications for Korea-
dc.typeKREI 보고서-
dc.contributor.alternativeNameSong, Jooho-
dc.contributor.alternativeNameLim, Jeongbin-
dc.contributor.alternativeNameLee, Hyunok-
dc.contributor.alternativeNameDaniel A. Sumner-
dc.contributor.alternativeNamePark, Hanul-
dc.relation.isPartOf미국 2012 농업법 개정 동향과 시사점-
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