FTA를 활용한 농산물 수출증대 전략 연구(1/2차연도)

영문 제목
A Study on Strategies for Increasing Agricultural Exports by Utilizing FTAs (Year 1 of 2)
우리나라는 2002년 한·칠레 FTA 타결을 시작으로 2015년 1월 현재 54개국과 15건의 FTA를 체결하였다. 특히, 2014년에는 호주, 캐나다, 뉴질랜드와 FTA를 비롯하여 중국과의 FTA, 뒤이어 베트남과도 FTA를 타결하였다. 이 같은 상황에서 FTA체결로 인하여 수출특혜관세 혜택을 받을 수 있는 여건이 조성되어 수출량은 크게 증가할 것으로 기대하고 있다. 뿐만 아니라 그동안 공급과잉에 따른 수급불균형 문제를 농산물 수출확대를 통해 해결한다는 측면에서도 우리나라가 지금까지 체결한 FTA를 효과적으로 활용하여 농산물 수출을 증대시킬 수 있는 전략이 필요한 시점이다. 따라서 이 연구는 농산물 수출의 FTA 활용실태를 파악하고 특혜관세의 혜택을 실질적으로 제고시키기 위하여 FTA 협정별 원산지 규정의 현황과 특징을 분석함으로써 FTA 효과를 극대화할 수 있는 방안을 제시한 것에 의의를 가진다. 특히 농산물 수출업체를 대상으로 FTA 체결국 수출에서 애로사항을 면밀히 조사·분석함으로써 FTA 환경에 적합한 세부적 수출전략을 수립하고 FTA 체결국 수출시장을 선점하기 위한 정책 방안을 도출하였다.
Background of Research Beginning with the FTA with Chile in 2002, Korea has signed 12 FTAs with 50 countries as of October 2014, and its proportion of FTA trade volume is expected to be over half its total trade volume. Some expect a large increase in regional exports if the FTAs are actively utilized, but exports have not grown as much as expected. This is because Korea’s FTA utilization ratio of agricultural products export is 22.8%, which is a very low level. That is, it shows that the FTAs, which the nation signed, have not been used efficiently in agricultural export and that export increase effects due to FTA preferential tariff cuts were small in the agriculture sector. The reason for the low FTA utilization ratio in agricultural products export is that most export companies are small-scale so they do not know a prerequisite for FTA preferential tariff reduction, place-of-origin regulations, or they have difficulties in being issued a certificate of origin for export owing to lack of people exclusively in charge. Unfortunately, in the field of agricultural products, the current state of rules of origin by FTA and by item has not been fully examined. Therefore, this study aims to seek for new export strategies which can maximize the FTA utilization ratio by comprehensively reviewing place-of-origin regulations by item and by FTA partner country and the tariff rate structure.Method of Research We drew strategies for increasing exports by partner country and by item suitable for the FTA environment by comprehensively reviewing the current situation of FTA partners’ export markets and rules of origin. First, we analyzed the present state and features of rules of origin by FTA to identify the FTA utilization status of agricultural exports and practically improve preferential tariff benefits. For this, we estimated agricultural exports’ utilization ratio of FTA preferential tariff by FTA partner and by item group, and suggested plans to enhance the utilization ratio by major market. We also compared and analyzed preferential tariff structures on the basis of tariff concessions by FTA partner and by product group, and measured tariff reduction effects by item group and by process criterion of major countries including the US and the EU. To figure out the requirements of rules of origin, which are the most important in maximizing FTA preferential duty benefits, we analyzed the rules regarding major agricultural products, compared FTA partners’ rules and their characteristics, and analyzed the restrictiveness in the agricultural products sector by FTA by designing or calculating 13 stages of previous studies’ restrictiveness index related to the place of origin. In addition, we analyzed the relation among FTA utilization ratios in export by using determinants of FTA utilization such as the previously calculated FTA preferential tariff benefits and place-of-origin restrictiveness indices, and analyzed the effect of rules of origin, which are the key of FTA utilization, on overall trade through trade creation and trade diversion effects. Last, we established detailed export strategies suited to the FTA environment and drew policy implications to dominate the export markets of FTA partner countries by investigating and analyzing difficulties of domestic exporters and importers of agricultural products in export to the nations.Research Results and Implications According to the research result, various strategies are needed to maximize FTA effects by comparing FTA partners’ complex and diverse country-of-origin regulations and analyzing their features in order to increase tariff reduction effects and the low FTA utilization ratio in agricultural export. First, given that strict place-of-origin regulations lower trade creation effects resulting from FTA preferential tariff benefits, a strategy is necessary to maximally raise import barriers of strict conditions for imported agricultural products by independent rules of origin from a point of view of a net importer of agricultural products before the conclusion of the regulations agreement, and to maximally lower export barriers by negotiating eased rules for exported agricultural products. In case of the FTA place-of-origin regulations agreement which have been already signed, improper rules should be revised through the existing implementation committees by FTA. Additionally, because domestic exporters of agricultural products have difficulties in FTA utilization mainly due to lack of information and complex procedures related to the place of origin, policies are needed to expand the provision of information regarding FTAs, nurture FTA experts, and diffuse the management system of FTA certificates of origin in order to promote the exporters’ utilization of FTAs. A certain level of government support can also be an effective strategy to cultivate FTA specialists of domestic companies in FTA partners in the mid and long term. Researchers: Lee Byoung-hoon, Eur Myong-keun, Chung Dae-hee, Park Han-ul, Yun Yeong-seok, Han Bo-hyunResearch Period: 2014. 1. - 2014. 12.E-mail address: bhlee@krei.re.kr
제1장 서 론제2장 농산물 수출 동향제3장 농산물 수출의 FTA 활용 현황제4장 FTA 체결국별 특혜관세와 관세절감 효과제5장 FTA 농산물 원산지 규정의 현황 및 특징제6장 FTA 활용 결정요인과 무역효과 간의 관계분석 제7장 농산물 수출입의 FTA 활용 실태 분석제8장 요약 및 결론
FTA를 활용한 농산물 수출증대 전략 연구(2의1차년도)
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