농축산 폐자원의 효율적 자원화 방안 연구(1/2차년도)
- A Study on Efficient Recycling of Agricultural and Livestock Wastes as Resources (Year 1 of 2)
- 서대석; 강창용; 박영구; 최진용
- 환경보호와 자원순환을 통한 지속가능성 확보는 세계 여러 나라의 주요 이슈 중 하나이다. 자원순환이란 폐기물의 발생을 억제하고 재활용 또는 재이용 등의 방법을 통해 환경친화적으로 이용･관리하는 것이다. 우리나라의 환경 및 폐기물 관리 정책도 자원순환사회로 패러다임을 전환하고 있으며, 농업분야도 환경보호와 농업 어메니티 보존을 위해 영농폐기물과 유기성 폐자원의 관리 및 처리를 자원순환형 체제로의 전환이 필요하다. 우리나라 농업에서는 기술 발전에 힘입어 다양한 영농자재가 투입되고 사용량 역시 증가하고 있다. 이에 따라 영농폐기물과 유기성 폐자원 발생량이 지속적으로 증가함에도 불구하고 이를 효율적으로 처리･관리를 위한 방안은 미흡한 실정이다. 과거에 비해 폐자원의 재활용률이 높아졌다고는 하나 여전히 일부 영농폐자원이 부적절한 방법으로 처리되고 있다.이 연구는 2년차 연구로 영농폐기물과 유기성 폐자원의 효율적인 자원화 방안을 도출하고자 한다. 금년에는 1년차로 영농폐기물 중 멀칭폐비닐과 농약 등에 주안점을 두고 영농폐기물의 발생 단계에서 재활용 처리 단계까지의 실태를 점검하고 관련 법 체계 및 제도를 검토하여 현실적인 정책 방안을 도출하였다.
Background of research The concept of ‘resource circulation’ is to use and manage the resource circulation process in an environment-friendly way, for example, reducing disposed wastes, recycling (including making energy) or treating the disposed wastes. At present, Germany and Japan who are the OECD member countries have positively promoted their resource circulation policy. Korea enacted and announced the ‘Fundamentals of Resource Circulation Act’ on May 29, 2016, which will be fully enforced from 2018. Accordingly, urgent and important issues in the agricultural sector include building a basis for ‘sustainable agriculture’ and improving farmer’s quality of living. Therefore, it is time to change the policy paradigm for agriculture and rural areas. In the ‘Waste Management Act’, the agriculture wastes are classified as daily wastes, and the head of local governments is responsible for classifying, managing and treating the daily wastes. The KEC (Korea Environment Corporation) is in charge of general management and treatment of the major agricultural wastes along with private contractors, To this end, local governments encourage farmers to collect their agricultural wastes by giving subsidies for the collection, but there are still problems involved in discharging, managing and treating the agricultural wastes. Therefore, there is a need for developing a strategy for identifying issues and addressing them for the overall management system, for example, discharging and treating agricultural, forestry and livestock wastes to use them as resources for recycling the wastes. Method of Research For examining current situations and institutions for agricultural wastes of Korea and other countries, data were collected from authorities including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, the Korea Environment Corporation, and the Korea Agriculture and fishery and industry Recycling Cooperative to analyze institutions and current states of general wastes and agricultural wastes of Korea. A survey by questionnaire was conducted to collect views of farmers who utilize agricultural materials for growing greenhouse crops, vegetables in open land, and food crops to analyze management of agricultural wastes. Economic efficiency of resources made with agricultural wastes was analyzed. Studies were commissioned to researchers about recycling agricultural wastes, examining and developing alternative material technology, and studying agricultural waste management policies and implications of other countries. Current recycling and issues of agricultural wastes were examined. Meetings with experts including people involved in policy making were held to derive specific improvement strategies. Expert meetings with recycling companies and the Korea Agricultural and fishery and industry Recycling Cooperative were held to examine current recycling and issues of agricultural wastes and derive improvement strategies. Research Results and ImplicationsCurrent Agricultural Waste and Management After 2010, about 330 thousand tons of agricultural plastic film wastes have been disposed. Among them, 70 thousand tons were for external covering of greenhouses on the average, and about 250 thousand tons of plastic film wastes were for mulching. The volume of collected agricultural plastic film wastes is about 180 thousand tons, implying a collection rate of about 70%.After 2010, about 72 million agricultural chemical containers have been disposed. They include 47 million used plastic containers and 25 million used plastic bags for agricultural chemical powder. The volume of collected agricultural chemical containers is about 54 million, implying a collection rate of about 75% compared to the disposal. When farmers bring their used agricultural plastic film wastes to the common collection centers, private collectors transport them to the location specified by the Corporation. Compensations based on the used containers (volume of collected containers) are given to farmers by the local governments or the central government. Farmers discharging agricultural chemical container wastes collect and transport their wastes to collection bins in each village or joint collection sites, and private collectors then transport them to the location specified by the Corporation. As of 2013, there are about 12,000 bins for collecting agricultural chemical container wastes across the country.Current Agricultural Waste Recycling and Issues Involved in Disposal and Management Thereof Recycling major agricultural wastes depends on budgets, and total supply by adding collected volume to the inventory. Therefore, the recycling ratio based on the volume of collected wastes is almost 100%, and the recycling ratio compared to the volume of disposed wastes is above 55% although it depends on the type of wastes. Among major agricultural wastes, about 180 thousand tons of plastic film wastes are recycled annually, implying 55% compared to the volume of disposed wastes and 100% compared to the volume of collected wastes.The survey with farmers and staff members in the local governments reveals that farmers burn or illegally dump plastic film wastes and agricultural chemical containers because waste collectors do not collect agricultural wastes including used agricultural plastic films and agricultural chemical containers. For plastic film wastes, 31% of respondents said long distances to 'transport them to collection sites', or inconvenient to transport them there because of unfavorable location of farmland, 15% said normal practice, and 10% said lack of labor and no other option for treatment. One of the reasons may be difficult transportation and carriage due to the volume and weight of the plastic film wastes after collection thereof. Moreover, an analysis shows that the most potential reason is aging and female rural labor population. Reasons for poor agricultural waste management include no location for storage and low voluntary participation of residents. Economic Efficiency of Recycling Agricultural WastesAn analysis of used agricultural chemical plastic containers shows the net benefit from recycling them is 569,799 won/ton. This is a number in consideration of social costs and benefits. However, when calculated in terms of private costs and benefits, the benefits are just 77,561 won/ton. Based on 2,552 tons (the number of used containers converted to weight), the average of recycled used plastic agricultural chemical containers, the net social benefits by the used plastic agricultural chemical containers are about 1.45 billion won per annum. Assuming that the recycling volume and technology level similar to the current state continues for coming 30 years and applying 5.5% of discount rate per annum, the value of total social benefits (NPV) is 21.1 billion won.The analysis of economic efficiency of recycling plastic film wastes (LDPE) shows that the net benefits are 576,747 won/ton in consideration of social costs and benefits. Calculation with private costs and benefits results in 84,543 won/ton for benefits. Because the recent average volume of recycled HDPE is 88,466 tons, the resulting net social benefits by recycling LDPE are about 51 billion won per annum. The current value for social benefits for the coming 30 years is about 740 billion won.Strategy for Improving Management of Disposed Agricultural Wastes It is necessary to provide more joint collection sites for easy disposal, storage and collection of agricultural wastes, and conduct public relations about the locations, storage and treatment. Active training is also required about proper disposal of agricultural wastes, subsidies for collection and programs for management and collection of agricultural wastes. Review the method of providing labor for disposing and collecting agricultural wastes in consideration of lack of labor due to aging and female farm population. Enhance management and tasks of KEC and provide more services and support to farmers and private collectors. Design substantial grants, for example, ‘Environment Mark’ for various products by using recycled wastes, and conduct public relations for consumers about the value and effect of finished products made of recycled wastes. Institutions and Policy ImprovementThe local governments responsible for managing agricultural wastes shall establish more specific and substantial management guides for agricultural wastes ideal for their circumstances and environment.It is essential to apply and specify them to/in the Daily Waste Management and Enforcement Ordinance. Because there are various environments in jurisdiction of each local government, for example, geographical conditions, agricultural environment and main crops, it is necessary to prepare specific ordinances with agricultural waste management and treatment schemes good for features of each region considering different environments and conditions. It is essential to strengthen cooperation with involved authorities including the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. An important task of agriculture and rural areas is proper management of the agricultural environment and waste management. The reason is that the value of resource circulating society and sustainable agriculture is the concept to be expanded in parallel. Researchers: Suh Daeseok, Kang Changyong, Park Yeonggoo, Choe Jinyong Research Period: 2016. 1. ~ 2016. 12.
- 제1장 서론제2장 폐기물 관리제도와 주요 정책제3장 영농폐기물의 발생 및 관리 현황제4장 영농폐기물의 재활용 현황과 경제성 분석제5장 영농폐기물 배출 저감을 위한 투입 대체재 개발 현황과 과제제6장 해외 영농폐기물 관리 및 자원화 정책제7장 영농폐기물의 효율적 자원화를 위한 개선 방안
- 농축산 폐자원의 효율적 자원화 방안 연구(2의 1차년도)
- KREI 보고서
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