FTA 대상국의 농산물 협상 사례분석: 중국의 FTA 사례분석

영문 제목
Negotiation Strategies of FTA Counterpart Countries: China
우리나라는 세계 주요 경제권과 FTA 협상을 타결하였거나 진행 중에 있다. 앞으로 협상을 맺게 될 주요 국가는 중국, 일본, 터키, 브라질 등으로 볼 수 있다. 이들 국가와의 협상 및 현재 추진되고 있는 한·중·일 3국 간의 FTA가 타결되면 아프리카 지역을 비롯한 일부 국가를 제외한 대부분의 국가와 FTA를 체결하게 된다. 이 연구는 앞으로 협상을 추진하게 될 FTA 대상국 가운데 우리나라 농업에 큰 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상되는 중국의 FTA 협상 사례를 분석하였다. 중국의 FTA 협상 사례를 면밀히 분석하여 한·중 FTA 협상 전략을 수립하는 데에 필요한 정보를 제공하고자 하였다. 중국의 FTA 협상 전략을 분석한 상태에서 협상에 임할 경우 우리나라는 보다 유리한 입장에서 협상을 이끌어갈 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. FTA 협상에 상대국이 기존에 체결한 FTA 사례는 중요한 협상 지표의 하나로 작용한다. 기존 FTA와 비교하여 상대적 불이익을 최소화하는 것은 물론 협상 상대국에 특정 사안을 요청하는 근거로 활용할 수 있기 때문이다. 이 연구는 중국의 기존 FTA에서 상품양허 방식과 농식품분야 민감품목 현황, 민감품목의 양허 유형 분석, 관세쿼터(TRQ), 농산물 긴급관세(ASG), 관세 이외 분야(원산지, 지적재산권, 동식물검역, 기술규정 및 표준 등 통관 관련 제도) 등을 농산물 및 농업의 관점에서 분석하였다. 분석 대상은 ASEAN, 뉴질랜드, 칠레, 대만 등 네 가지 사례를 선정하였다.
Korea already finished FTA negotiations with 45 countries including the U.S., EU, ASEAN and India. Korea also try to make a conclusion in some other FTA negotiations with Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Australia, New Zealand, and Turkey. Therefor remaining major economies scheduled to negotiate will be China, Japan, Russia, and Brazil. In the short run FTA negotiations with China and Japan will be started or resumed. FTA negotiations with Turkey started from 2010. Some country's outcome of FTA negotiations may affect to following negotiations and it is important to analyse negotiation partners' previous cases. Major objectives of this study are to analyse China's outcome of previous FTA and provide information for Korea·China FTA negotiations. China provided trade opportunities to ASEAN and Taiwan under the consideration of regional political and security measures. However, China tried to protect some agricultural commodities related to food security and rural economy including grains, sugar, oilseed, and tobacco. On the other hand, China kept a defensive position in the negotiation with Chile and New Zealand. China has exception lists in China·Chile agreements for some agricultural commodities related to food security and rural economy including sugar and animal and vegetable oil while Chile conceded almost all items. China also has exception lists in China·New Zealand negotiations. Rules of origin are key factors to achieve preferential trade agreements such as FTAs. Qualifications of originating goods can be divided into two categories; one is wholly obtained and the other is not wholly obtained, i.e. goods produced with imported materials. In the case of China, vegetable goods harvested in one country are treated as wholly obtained. Animal products and live animal are accepted to be wholly obtained when both born and raised or when raised. In the case of China·Taiwan and China·ASEAN FTA born and raised criterion is applied. Raised criterion is accepted in the case of China·Chile and China·New zealand FTA. Changes in tariff classification criterion and value added criterion are in general applied for the goods produced with non-originating materials. For the criterion of changes in tariff classification, HS 2 digit level(chapter) is widely applied and HS 4 or 6 digit level is used as supplements. Regional value added of 40 to 50 percent is a minimum for the acceptance as originating goods. De minimis of 8 to 10 percent and bilateral cumulation are accepted in China's FTA. Korea needs to maximize exceptions of market opening for sensitive agricultural products for the negotiation with China. China's early harvest program can be a benchmark for Korea to present an active position and preserve sensitivities. Various supplementary measures against possible negative impacts from coming FTA negotiations need to be introduced in the agreements. Cooperation programs in agricultural and rural areas can be positively considered one of FTA policy strategies. Korea needs to keep a strict rules of origin for fresh agricultural products. Standards of planted and harvest for vegetable products and born and raised for animal products are strongly requested to be maintained as Korea's position. For the changes in tariff classification, HS 2 digit level will be better to protect fresh products while HS 4 to 6 digit level can be positively considered for processed food. Exceptions of de minimis application need to be introduced for agricultural products. Due restrictions on non tariff measures including embargo and subsidies also need to be included in FTA. Special treatments for agricultural products are requested in government procurement agreements.Researchers: Myong-Keun Eor, Sei-Kyun Choi, Hyoung-Jin Jeon,Dae-Hee ChungE-mail Address: myongeor@krei.re.kr
제1장 서 론제2장 관세양허 분야 FTA 협정제3장 원산지 규정제4장 동식물위생 조치제5장 기타
농산물무역; 무역협상; 자유무역협정; 중국
발간물 유형
KREI 보고서
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