FTA 대상국의 농산물 협상 사례분석: 일본의 FTA 사례분석

영문 제목
Negotiation Strategies of FTA Counterpart Countries: Japan
우리나라는 세계 주요 경제권과 FTA 협상을 타결하였거나 협상을 진행 중이다. 앞으로 협상을 맺게 될 주요 국가는 중국, 일본, 브라질, 터키, 러시아 등으로 예상된다. 이들 국가와의 협상 및 현재 추진되고 있는 한・중・일 3국 간의 FTA가 타결되면 아프리카 지역을 비롯한 일부 국가를 제외한 대부분의 국가와 FTA를 체결하게 된다. 이 연구에서는 현재 협상이 중단된 상태지만 앞으로 협상이 타결될 경우 우리나라 농업에 긍정적인 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상되는 일본을 대상으로 분석하였다. 일본과의 협상에서 우리나라는 농산물 수출을 증대시킬 수 있는 방안과 일부 민감품목으로 작용할 수 있는 품목의 시장개방을 최소화하는 전략이 요구된다. 일본이 체결한 FTA 사례를 분석함으로써 일본의 전략을 파악하는 것은 우리나라의 한·일 FTA 전략에 필수적인 부분이다. 일본이 체결한 FTA 협정 가운데 상품양허 유형, 농식품부문 민감품목 현황, 민감품목의 양허유형 분석, 관세쿼터(TRQ), 농산물 긴급관세(ASG), 관세 이외 분야(원산지, 지적재산권, 동식물검역, 기술규정 및 표준 등 통관 관련 제도) 등을 농산물 및 농업의 관점에서 분석하였다. 분석대상 국가는 멕시코, 칠레, 태국 등이다.
Korea already finished FTA negotiations with 45 countries including the U.S., EU, ASEAN and India. Korea also try to make a conclusion in some other FTA negotiations with Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Australia, New Zealand, and Turkey. Therefor remaining major economies scheduled to negotiate will be China, Japan, Russia, and Brazil. In the short run FTA negotiations with China and Japan will be started or resumed. FTA negotiations with Turkey started from 2010. Some country's outcome of FTA negotiations may affect to following negotiations and it is important to analyse negotiation partners' previous cases. Major objectives of this study are to analyse Japan's outcome of previous FTA and provide information for resuming the negotiation with Japan. Japan·Mexico EPA has low level of tariff elimination rates for agricultural products. Tariff elimanation rates are 48.9 percent for Japan and 57.1 percent for Mexico. TRQ concession has been widely introduced to compensate low tariff elimination level. Japan expanded market opening for agriculture in Japan·Chile FTA. Japan did not reserve fruits market protection in spite of Chile's high competitiveness. However, Japan did not concede most of grains and dairy products under the consideration. Japan further expanded agricultural market in Japan·Thailand EPA. Concession rates are increased and exception lists are significantly decreased. However, many major commodities are found on the exception list for high tariff items. Rules of origin are key factors to achieve preferential trade agreements such as FTAs. Qualifications of originating goods can be divided into two categories; one is wholly obtained and the other is not wholly obtained, i.e. goods produced with imported materials. In the case of Japan, vegetable goods harvested in one country are treated as wholly obtained. In the case of Japan·Mexico FTA, live animals and animal products born and raised criterion is applied. Raised criterion is accepted in the case of Japan·Chile and Japan·Thailand FTA. Changes in tariff classification criterion is more widely applied than value added criterion for the goods produced with non-originating materials. For the criterion of changes in tariff classification, HS 2 digit level(chapter) is widely applied and HS 4 or 6 digit level is used as supplements. Regional value added of 30 to 55 percent is a minimum for the acceptance as originating goods. De minimis of 7 to 10 percent and bilateral cumulation are accepted in Japan's FTA. Korea needs to keep a strict rules of origin for fresh agricultural products. Standards of planted and harvest for vegetable products and born and raised for animal products are strongly requested to be maintained as Korea's position. For the changes in tariff classification, HS 2 digit level will be better to protect fresh products while HS 4 to 6 digit level can be positively considered for processed food. Exceptions of de minimis application need to be introduced for agricultural products. Due restrictions on non tariff measures including embargo and subsidies also need to be included in FTA. Special treatments for agricultural products are requested in government procurement agreements.Researchers: Sei-Kyun Choi, Myong-Keun Eor, Dae-Hee ChungE-mail address: skchoi@krei.re.kr
제1장 서론제2장 관세양허 분야 FTA 협정제3장 원산지 규정제4장 동식물위생 조치제5장 기타
농산물무역; 무역협상; 자유무역협정; 일본
발간물 유형
KREI 보고서
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