FTA 대상국의 농산물 협상 사례분석: 터키의 FTA 사례분석

영문 제목
Negotiation Strategies of FTA Counterpart Countries: Turkey
우리나라는 세계 주요 경제권과 FTA 협상을 타결하였거나 협상을 진행 중에 있다. 앞으로 협상을 추진하게 될 주요 국가는 중국, 일본, 브라질, 러시아, 터키 등으로 볼 수 있다. 이들 국가와의 협상 및 현재 추진되고 있는 한·중·일 3국간의 FTA가 타결되면 아프리카 지역을 비롯한 일부 국가를 제외한 대부분의 국가와 FTA를 체결하게 된다. 이 연구에서는 앞으로 협상을 추진하게 될 FTA 대상국 가운데 우리나라 농업에 큰 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상되는 터키를 대상으로 FTA 협상 사례를 분석하였다. FTA 추진 대상국의 FTA 협상 사례를 분석하는 것은 상대국에 대한 시장개방 요청 전략수립은 물론 우리나라의 민감품목 보호를 위한 협상 전략수립을 위해서도 필요하다. FTA 협상에 있어서 상대국이 기존에 체결한 FTA 사례는 협상의 중요한 지표로 작용한다. 이 연구는 터키의 기존 FTA 협상에서의 상품양허 유형, 농식품부문 민감품목 현황, 민감품목의 양허유형 분석, 관세쿼터(TRQ), 농산물 긴급관세(ASG), 관세 이외 분야(원산지, 지적재산권, 동식물 검역, 기술규정 및 표준 등 통관 관련 제도) 등을 농산물 및 농업의 관점에서 분석하였다. 분석 대상은 터키가 체결한 이집트, 모로코, EU 등과의 FTA 사례이다.
Korea already finished FTA negotiations with 45 countries including the U.S., EU, ASEAN and India. Korea also try to make a conclusion in some other FTA negotiations with Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Australia, New Zealand, and Turkey. Therefor remaining major economies scheduled to negotiate will be China, Japan, Russia, and Brazil. In the short run FTA negotiations with China and Japan will be started or resumed. FTA negotiations with Turkey started from 2010. Some country's outcome of FTA negotiations may affect to following negotiations and it is important to analyse negotiation partners' previous cases. Major objectives of this study are to analyse Turkey's outcome of previous FTA and provide information for Korea·Turkey negotiations. Turkey tends to take a request offer formula. Turkey's interests are focused on hazel nuts, figs, cherry, dried apricots, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. Major concerns are also given to confectionary, chocolates, pasta, bakery, cucumber, fruits, and fruit juice. Tariffs are reduced partially, e.g. 15 percent or 50 percent, within the agreed quantity of imports. Turkey·Morocco FTA represents a low level of market opening for Turkey. Turkey provides small TRQ for limited items to Morocco and keeps applied tariff rates for major commodities instead of tariff elimination. Turkey expanded agricultural market liberalization to the EU. Tariffs are eliminated for most of the agricultural products except for some sensitive items. Partial reduction of tariffs instead of elimination, tariff ceiling or seasonal tariff systems are introduced for sensitive commodities to minimize negative impacts on the agricultural sector. Rules of origin are key factors to achieve preferential trade agreements such as FTAs. Qualifications of originating goods can be divided into two categories; one is wholly obtained and the other is not wholly obtained, i.e. goods produced with imported materials. Turkey accepts vegetable goods as wholly obtained when harvested in one country. For animal and animal products, born and raised criterion is accepted. Changes in tariff classification criterion is applied solely or together with value added criterion. De minimis of 10 percent and diagonal cumulation are accepted in Turkey's FTA. Korea needs to maximize exceptions of market opening for sensitive agricultural products for the negotiation with Turkey. Various supplementary measures against possible negative impacts from coming FTA negotiations need to be introduced in the agreements. Cooperation programs in agricultural and rural areas can be positively considered one of FTA policy strategies. Korea needs to keep a strict rules of origin for fresh agricultural products. Standards of planted and harvest for vegetable products and born and raised for animal products are strongly requested to be maintained as Korea's position. For the changes in tariff classification, HS 2 digit level will be better to protect fresh products while HS 4 to 6 digit level can be positively considered for processed food. Exceptions of de minimis application need to be introduced for agricultural products. Due restrictions on non tariff measures including embargo and subsidies also need to be included in FTA. Special treatments for agricultural products are requested in government procurement agreements.Researchers: Won-Mog Choi, Sei-Kyun Choi, Dae-Hee ChungResearch period:E-mail: wmchoi@ewha.ac.kr
제1장 서론제2장 농산물 교역원칙 및 예외제3장 농산물 관련 원산지 규정제4장 비관세장벽 및 일반적 예외제5장 지적재산권(지리적 표시)
농산물무역; 무역협상; 자유무역협정; 터키
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KREI 보고서
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