에티오피아의 농업

영문 제목
Agriculture in Ethiopia
저자
이상철오성종김종욱
출판년도
2010-12
초록
에티오피아는 아프리카 동북부에 위치하여, 사하라이남 아프리카 국가 중 두 번째 인구대국이자 1인당 국민소득이 280달러 수준인 세계 최빈국이다. 그러나 아프리카에서 두 번째로 많은 옥수수와 밀을 생산하고 가축 사육두수가 가장 많을 뿐만 아니라 수자원이 풍부하여 농업분야 개발의 잠재력도 높다. 최근에는 에티오피아 정부가 국가예산의 10% 이상을 농업 및 농촌부문에 투자하는 등 적극적으로 이 분야 개발에 힘쓰고 있다. 우리나라와는 6·25 참전국이라는 특별한 인연도 있으며, 해외농업개발과 협력사업의 아프리카 확대를 위한 거점국가로서의 의미도 가지는 나라이다. 이 자료집은 에티오피아의 농업, 그 가운데에서도 작물과 축산 부문, 그리고 수자원에 관하여 관련분야의 전문가들이 상세히 조사한 결과물이다. 분야별로 현황과 문제점을 체계적으로 소개하였으며, 아울러 향후 우리나라와 협력 사업이 추진될 경우 방향정립에 대한 제언도 포함하고 있다.
The purpose of this study was to explore the strategies for improving the professionality of farmer education and training practitioners. At least ten percent of Ethiopian farm population is either tenants or farm workers, indicating small farm structure of the country. Obstacles to Ethiopian rural development are 1) lack of market-oriented agriculture, 2) failure of land utilization and management, 3) shortage of proper agricultural technologies, and 4) absence of appropriate agricultural policy. Those make it difficult to attain rural development through agricultural growth. Ethiopian government, judging that there would be no economic growth without rural development, has put a lot of financial investments for rural development, and implemented various development projects. It established five-year crop production plan, and performs programs for increasing production through crop production technology development and cultivated land expansion. It has also tried to develop intensive technologies for seed, fertilizers, and efficient disease pesticide management and control. There are three reasons for low rice productivity: i) farmers' understanding and knowledge about rice cultivation are insufficient, and, the lack of genetic resources makes it difficult to supply site-specific varieties through species improvement, ii) although each province has its own agricultural research center, it only focuses on maize, teff and other industrial crops, neglecting rice, iii) as agricultural infrastructure is not developed, effective land use is not feasible, and finally few machines are used in rice production. Between 1961 and 2000, national income has increased by 0.84%, annually whereas that of dairy industry showed 1.55% annual increase, implying sustained growth potentials. Cattle breeding system is distinguished between large-scale private feedlot and small farmers' private feedlot systems. The biggest problems of the large-scale system is price of water and supply of consistent quality meat, and availability of financing and export markets. In general, farmers prefer goats to sheep, because of easiness of breeding and high market prices. Large-scale commercial chicken farms are mainly in Debra Zeit region. The biggest one is breeding 420 thousand chickens and supplying 34 million eggs to the capital city annually, which occupies sixty percent of the nations total production. Chicken meat is less expensive than cattle meat. Agricultural extension system is for improvement of chicken, horticulture, tree seeds and wheat seeds, but it is not working well due to lack of human and financial resources. Irrigation is recognized as one of the most important means to enhance agricultural productivity responding to population increase. The Ethiopian government encourages people to participate in various water management activities such as water distribution and maintenance of micro-irrigation system. According to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) report in 2005, drinking water is supplied to 31.4% of rural areas and 83.1% of urban areas, and the national average is 39.4%. For water resource development, resident participatory, micro-level water resource development projects (200~300ha) are recommended in the highland areas with large population. In sparsely populated lowland regions, large-scale development through inducing civil and foreign investments will be a proper strategy. The latter strategy will be of great contribution to national economic development by attracting investment in infrastructural expansion in such sectors as drinking water, irrigation, hydro electric power as well as road and market facilities, and in-migration of people and capital. The literature reviews on farmer education and training practitioners' professionality and farmer education and training policies and researches have found that job environment of farmer education and training practitioners was so poor to execute normal education and training process and suggested strategies for supporting them to develop their professionality including extending learning opportunities.Researchers: Sang-Chul Lee, Sung-Jong Oh and Jong-Wook KimResearch period: 2010. 10. - 2010. 11.E-mail address: heojang@krei.re.kr
목차
제1장 개요 및 경제제2장 농업 일반제3장 작물제4장 축산제5장 수자원
발행처
한국농촌경제연구원
주제어
농업현황; 에티오피아
발간물 유형
KREI 보고서
URI
http://repository.krei.re.kr/handle/2018.oak/19584
Appears in Collections:
연구보고서 > 수탁보고서 (C)
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML
Files in This Item:
에티오피아의 농업.pdf (2.87 MB) Download

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE