우리나라 농업기계 공급실태와 적정농업기계 공급방안

영문 제목
Current Status of Agricultural Machinery Supply in Korea and a Plan for Appropriate Supply
저자
강창용한혜성
출판년도
2014-01-30
초록
영농활동에서 생산비용의 절감 문제는 오랫동안 추구해온 농정의 과제중 하나이다. 농업에서 농기계는 기초적인 요소생산 분야로 필수산업이라 할 수 있다. 농업 발전을 지원하는 농기계산업은 그동안 농업성장과 함께 성장을 해왔지만, 농기계의 대규격화·고성능화가 심화되면서 가격이 상승하여 이를 이용하는 농가들은 어려움에 직면하고 있다. 우리나라 정부의 정책은 이 부분에 관심을 기울여 그동안 농기계가격을 직접 관리하고, 생산과 유통에 대해서도 적절한 정책을 시행해 왔으며, 농기계를 구입, 이용하는 농민들의 부담을 경감하기 위해 다양한 공동구입과 이용방법을 정책으로 펼쳐왔다. 하지만 농기계를 어느 정도 보유하고, 사용하는 것이 유익하느냐에 대한 논란은 늘 제기된 문제이며 명쾌하게 정리하기 어렵다. 이 연구는 다양한 기준과 이론을 이용하여 현재 우리나라 농업생산을 위한 농기계적정대수를 산출하는 것이다. 농기계이용 비용을 절감하자는 의미에서 적정 농기계 대수 추정은 이용자인 농민과 정책입안자들에게 유효한 목적 가운데 하나가 될 것이다. 다양한 관련 변수와 제한을 고려해 가면서 가능한 농기계이용비용을 줄이고 현재의 농업경영을 유지할 수 있는 농기계대수, 적정대수를 추정하는 것은 여러 가지 면에서 의미가 있을 것이다.
The need for agricultural machinery in the agricultural production is beyond question. It not only replaces physical labor but also performs a variety of roles and functions including productivity growth and timely execution of high-precision works. However, as the agricultural machinery has become larger and more precise, its price has been rising. On the other hand, the scale of agricultural management by farming households is still small and progressing relatively slow, the farmers have difficulties in buying and using expensive agricultural machinery. In the policy point of view, it is desirable that the agricultural machinery is in demand and use by farmers to the extent that it does not burden them, but in reality it does. The question about what is an appropriate number of agricultural machines in the Korean agriculture should not be considered simply as a matter of production material but is related to the lives of farmers, so it is not easy to provide a clear answer to this question. It is related not only to technology, economy and agricultural management but to various aspects of life. Depending on from what standard it is considered, there may be differences as to how many agricultural machines are appropriate. Therefore, it is impossible to calculate a proper number of agricultural machines in consideration of all the related variables. The purpose of this study was to calculate a proper number of agricultural machines for agricultural production of Korea, based on a variety of criteria and methods. Four approaches were used for the analysis. First approach was to calculate the arable land area under burden according to the performance of the agricultural machinery and, based on the calculated land area, to the appropriate number of agricultural machines. This approach emphasizes on the technical and mechanical aspects of the agricultural machines and assumes the maximum efficiency of natural and packaging conditions. As being calculated under the condition without any contention between works or workforce problem, the calculated appropriate number of agricultural machines was the smallest in all four approaches. As this was an extremely theoretical value, however, it would be very difficult to apply it in reality. Second, the appropriate number of agricultural machines was estimated using the minimum cost mixed integer programming model. This approach estimates a value resulting when the combined expenses of agricultural machines required for a given work would be the minimum. It is to find the number of agricultural machines at the minimum cost. Even for the same type of machines, the expenses may vary depending on specifications. As the data about work duration, work efficiency or competition among works is rather theoretical than practical, the estimated value turns out to be relatively small. Though the value is bigger than the value calculated based on the arable land area under burden, the proper number of agricultural machines is estimated to be smaller than the one calculated by the following two methods. Third, the appropriate number of agricultural machines was estimated based on a large-scale mechanized group farming system. At present, large-scale rice crop management systems called “Field-by-Field Management System” are being developed in the rural communities. These systems manage the large-scale rice crop farming over at least 50ha of land. Compared to individual management systems, they secure spacious work areas and self-regulate the work time and therefore they are believed to use the agricultural machines very efficiently. They have established mechanized systems through many years of management. Using these systems, it is possible to estimate the appropriate number of agricultural machines needed nationwide. It can be the best possible number of agricultural machines if the whole country can be organized into a group. However, as such organization is impossible, the estimated number is inevitably smaller than the appropriate number of agricultural machines actually in need. Fourth approach was to estimate the appropriate number of agricultural machines needed nationwide based on the breakeven point where the revenues and costs were balanced when the farmers bought and used agricultural machines. As using the field data obtained from the farmers, this approach can produce the most realistic estimate. However, this takes only the economic revenues and costs into consideration and therefore the convenience of work or the improved quality in production activities cannot be taken into consideration. Therefore, the estimate would still be smaller than the optimal value that takes all the related factors into consideration. Of the appropriated numbers of agricultural machines estimated by four approaches, we compared the one based on the large-scale rice crop management systems and the other using based on the breakeven point between revenues and costs and drew the following conclusion. Currently, about 167 thousand tractors (excluding those used for livestock farming and facility farming) are used for the rice crop farming. Based on the mechanized system (10 day basis) of the field-by-field management system, the appropriate number of agricultural machines is estimated to be around 139 thousands (77 thousands in case of 15 day basis). Therefore, the number of agricultural machines currently in use is shown to be about 30 thousands more than the appropriate number. However, when based on the breakeven point for the farmers, the appropriate number was estimated to be 173 thousands and thus the actual number was rather smaller than the appropriate number. For rice transplanters, the estimated appropriate number was 39 thousand more than the actual number when based on the mechanized system (10 day basis) of the field-by-field management system and excluding the walker-type (the walker-type rice transplanters are hardly in used in the field). On the other hand, when based on the area for breakeven point, it was shown to be 7.6 thousand more. However, in this case, the estimation showed that about 7,600 walker-type rice planters were also needed. Therefore, the estimated number did not seem to be too big. For combines, the appropriate number was estimated at 58 thousands, which was smaller than the number of combines currently in use (that is, 79 thousands) when based on the mechanized system of the field-by-field management system (10 day basis). When based on the areas for breakeven point, the appropriate number of combines was 69 thousands, which was 10 thousand more. However, considering that the combines are rarely used in the field, it is hard to say that it is in excess. As a result of comparing using various methods the appropriate number of agricultural machines and the actual number of agricultural machines in use, it is difficult to say in general that too many agricultural machines are in use. Except for the maximum value estimated from the mechanical and technological aspects and the one estimated using the mixed integer programming model for minimum cost, the issue of excess does not look so serious when the number is estimated based on the mechanized system of the field-by-field management system and on the area for breakeven point. When based on the area for breakeven point according to the most realistic data, the number of currently held agricultural machines may be slightly bigger more than the appropriate number, it is hard to say that all are in excess as the purchase and use of agricultural machines by farmers is affected by various factors in addition to revenues and expenses taken into consideration here. Researchers: Kang, Chang-Young, Han, Hye-SungResearch period: 2013. 8. - 2014. 1.E-mail address: cykang@krei.re.kr, funny1978@krei.re.kr
목차
제1장 서 론제2장 농기계공급과 보유, 이용제3장 적정 농기계 대수 추정제4장 종합과 시사
발행처
한국농촌경제연구원
과제명
우리나라 농업기계 공급 실태와 적정 농업기계 공급방안
발간물 유형
KREI 보고서
URI
http://repository.krei.re.kr/handle/2018.oak/20710
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연구보고서 > 수탁보고서 (C)
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