Land to the Tiller: A Comparison of Land Reform in South Africa and South Korea

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Land to the Tiller: A Comparison of Land Reform in South Africa and South Korea
Casper Hendrik Claassen이진상
인종차별주의가 종료된 이후 최근에 실시된 남아공의 토지개혁은 많은 문제점을 가지고 있다. 한국이 1940년대 후반 정부 주도에 의해 토지개혁이 성공적으로 이루어 졌고, 이는 경제적 이익으로, 높은 농업 생산성, 인적자원의 개발 그리고 자본계층을 만들어 내는 것과 대조적이다. 본 연구는, 남아공이 소작농 위주의 토지 개혁으로 농업생산성의 저하와, 수익성이 없는 농업으로 전락한 토지개혁에 대해 논한다. 국가차원에서 새로운 각도의 토지개혁으로 농촌지역에 토지를 장기 임대하고, 소유권을 인정하여, 개인의 소득이 보장 되도록 해야 한다. 지역 부족단위로 배분한 토지를 개인에게 분양하여, 농업 종사자들의 생산성 향상에 도움이 되는 새로운 방안을 제시한다.
This paper seeks to inform South Africa’s current land reform effort, which remains a deeply divisive issue in post-apartheid South Africa. Demonstrably, state-led land reform in Korea had significant economic benefits, namely, higher food supply, enhanced agricultural productivity, improved human capital, increased household income, and the emergence of a capitalist entrepreneurial class. Zimbabwe-style state-led land reform, on the other hand, would be destructive. Elements of state role in Korean land reform can be identified for use in South Africa, first through the adoption of a smallholder system in communal areas for profitable farming. Nationwide tenure reform projects should be launched in subsistence-farming areas to measure potential success. This would involve rural land tenure reform that sees ownership move from communal/government to individual level; where property rights are guaranteed to individuals. Ultimately, such reforms could support South Africa’s goal of achieving 30% land reform in the agricultural sector by cultivating successful black farmers who would be able to successfully manage larger commercial farms, whether they be divided into a number of smaller lots or stay intact.
I. IntroductionII. Literature ReviewIII. South African ContextIV. A Comparison with Land Reform in KoreaV. Pro-poor Rural DevelopmentVI. Conclusion and Recommendations
page. 1 - 24
토지개혁; 경제성장; 농촌개발; 한국; 남아공; land reform; economic development; rural poverty; Korea; South Africa
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