On request of the Korean Rural Economic Institute (KREI), the LEI (Land bouw Economisch Instituut-Agricultural Economics Institute) has made this report. This report starts with the main - differences between the Netherlands and South-Korea and enclosed a lot of issues about and around the agriculture and horticulture in The Netherlands in the past, current and coming days. The KREI want to learn about the Dutch agriculture system, so to relate and compare this to their own agricultural system.Differences between the NetherlandsandtheRepublicofKorea The total population (48 million) and the total surface of land of South-Korea is about three times more as the Netherlands. Density(486 inhabitants per km²)of Korea is about the same. The surface of the agricultural land in South-Korea only 20% of the total area. In the Netherlands is this much more(58%). In South-Korea almost all the agriculture used land is arable or horticulture(87%) or permanent crops(10%). There is little pasture land(3%). In the Netherland is 52% pasture land. In South-Korea work 8% in the primary agriculture against 3% in the Netherlands. The average cultivated area per farm household in Korea is with1.5ha less than in the Netherlands(16.4ha). The average area per worker in agriculture is 0.8ha in Korea against 7.9ha in the Netherlands. The average earnings on 1 ha in Korea are almost three times more than in the Netherlands(5,600$against2,000$). The agricultural income per capita in the Netherlands is with 28,000$ only 10% lower than the country-average(31,000$). In South-Korea the agricultural income per capita is with 9,000$ almost 40% lower than the country average(14,000$). The agricultural contribution in the Netherlands in the total trade-balance is very high. In South Korea the agricultural trade-balance is negative.History and present situation of the agriculture in the Netherlands About 150 year ago almost the halves of the population works in the agriculture. At the moment this percentage is 3%. Together with the surrounding business work 10% of the total population in the agricultural complex. Of the total agriculture land is used 41% by arable crops, 53% pasture land, 6% horticulture land in the open air and 0.5% are greenhouses. Of the 79,000 farms are about 25% specialized on cow and also the same percentage on other cattle. Specialized on live-stock is 9%. Further on 18% is specialized on horticulture and 15% has an arable farm.Measured in surface (ha) the arable farms are the biggest: average 55 ha. The milk-cow farms are on average 44 ha. The greenhouses have only an average surface of 1.5 Ha, but have the biggest economic size and have mostly the highest incomes. Most of farmers are well educated. Two-third has a high or medium agricultural level education. Of all the farms is 95% a family-farm. Of the farms with an eldest entrepreneur of 50 years or elder has one third a successor. 13% of the farms get exploited as a part-time farm. Also much farms have extended activities like nature contracts, sell agricultural products off farm or recreation activities. Almost 60% of the land is used by the owner of the land. The rest is rented land for a lot of years (28%) or for a short time (13%).The prices of the land are rather high (average 30,000 euro’s per ha).On average the farms have almost 6 parcels with a size of average 4 ha. The last ten years on average the total parcels per farm increase and the size of the parcels decrease. For a good production in agriculture a good water control system is necessary. Water boards (27 in the whole country) are responsible for the water control system.The success of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture The success of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture is bases on several issues. We mentioned the next issues as a key for the success: trade-nation and a good sea and river transport, balanced policy and democracy, good level of infrastructure, good level of education, agriculture friendly policy and knowledge-infrastructure, union and cooperatives, good policy for a good infrastructure for farm land, the agribusiness round the agriculture and horticulture is very well organized, and integration and cooperation between the agriculture, horticulture, agribusiness and government policiesAgriculture policies in the past and lessons from them In general the agricultural policy in the past was a policy of a more liberal trade within a lot of countries. So the development of specific products could start (seed potatoes, bulbs, flowers, vegetables, nursery products). But also the harbor of Rotterdam was important for the import of relatively cheap cereals, soy and tapioca. It was used for food for livestock. The livestock products were exported for an important part to other countries. Free trade was possible within the European Union which starts in 1957 with six countries. Nowadays complete free trade is possible within 27 countries. The product prices of a lot of products were guaranteed by the European Union. The general price for a lot of important products like cereals, milk and sugar was the responsibility of the European Union. After 1983 a lot of reforms were necessarily in the European Union, caused by high productivity in the European Union and high costs of sales on the world market. Measures came like quotations of several products, set aside programs of land, lower prices and direct income supports to farmers. Besides the European Union the Netherlands have their own policy on agricultural issues.The most important policy was based on OVO: Research, Extension and Education, Fiscal measures and stimulated funds for investments, and Reconstruction plansPolicy implementing In the Netherlands the several important groups can have contacts with specific commissions in the Parliament and with employees in the Ministries. On this way the several groups have influenced on important decisions. The National Parliament counts 150 members over 12 parties. The Government is based on a majority of the National Parliament. For implementing rural plans also the provinces (12) play an important role.Environmental agricultural and rural policy In the Netherlands, regulation policy is available on several issues. First, it is reductions of greenhouse gas emissions to aim to reduce 30% from 1990- 2020. Second, policy for reduction of nitrogen, phosphates and ammonia emissions is important, that were declined in the past 15-20 years with about one-third. At the moment there is also a emission rights system related with the total number of animals. Third, there is a policy for the use of pesticides: in 2010 95% of 1998. Within the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and outside this Ministry are several Services and Agencies for controlling and monitoring specific environmental issues and food qualities. Land reconstruction projects (from 1916) and the introducing of the National Ecological Network (from 1975) has had a great impact on the rural development in the Netherlands. Since the start of the land reconstruction projects, these projects have been in almost the whole agriculture area. In some areas land reconstruction projects have been for the second time. Special reconstruction projects are the reconstruction of the greenhouses horticulture sector and the reconstruction of the intensive livestock areas. Too, special project are for green areas around the cities, recreation projects and network projects for bike and footpaths. A part of the plan for the National Ecological Network until 2018 is to realize new nature reserves (100,000 ha), nature development (50,000 ha) and farm nature contracts (100,000 ha). At the moment farmers has signed nature contracts for a total surface of 76,000 ha. Besides nature-projects a lot of farmers have also other specific non-farm activities on their farms (agro-tourism, multiple use farm-building, processing products, selling products and care-farms). About one quarter of all the farms have farm related activities.Agricultural research and development The Wageningen University and Research organization(WUR) is the most important research organization in the Netherlands for the rural areas and the agricultural and horticultural sectors.Besides the Wageningen University (almost 6,000 students) and 2,200 employees there are 9 Scientific Research Institutes, 10 Plant Experimental Stations and 9 Animal Experimental Stations. On these DLO-Scientific Institutes and Experimental Stations together are 2,800 employees involved with a total research budget of 315 million euro’s(2006). This budget is financed for 42% by the Ministry of Agriculture, nature and Food Quality, 9%of Funds, 34% contract research for companies, 1% patents and licenses, 5% sales, 3% advices and 6%others.The Agricultural Economic Research Institute (LEI, 300 employees with a budget of 25 million euro’s) is one of the Scientific Research Institutes.Besides the WUR- Organization there are several other related important involved Institutes and Offices in the rural area.Budget of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality Of the total net expenses of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality of almost 1.7 billion euro’s go the most to knowledge and innovation (53%) and nature (25%). Sustainable enterprising (17%) and landscape and recreation (9%) are the next expenses. Within knowledge and innovation the most expenses go to the VBMO-schools (12-16 years) with 17% of the total Ministry-budget. DLO- research financed by the Ministry is 10% of the total expenses of the Ministry.Payments to farmers and other from the European Union In 2007 the payments to farmers from the European Union have been 700 million euro’s and 300 million euro’s to other companies/bodies. These payments go direct to the farmers and these companies/bodies and don’t go first to the Ministry. Also, the European Union contributes an amount of 72 million euro’s for investments in the rural areas(2008). These amounts go direct to the Service Rural Areas.Future policy and developments In the report is given the future policy of the European Union (more market oriented and a switch of the budget into the rural policy and economy) and Dutch policy (development of National Landscapes, continuing of reconstruction plans and realize the National Ecological Network). Besides these policies there are discussed the developments on world scale (grew in population and energy developments) and on going processes of bigger scales in the agriculture and horticulture.List of addresses of the most important involved Research Institutes, Authorities and Organizations In this report in appendix 1 a list of addresses of the most important involved Research Institutes, Authorities and Organizations is represented.
제1장 네덜란드 개요(Impression of the Netherlands)제2장 네덜란드와 한국의 비교제3장 네덜란드 농업·농촌의 과거와 현재제4장 네덜란드 농업의 성공요인제5장 과거 농업 정책과 교훈제6장 네덜란드 농업정책의 형성과 실행제7장 환경정책과 농촌정책제8장 농업 연구개발정책제9장 네덜란드 농업자연품질부 예산과 EU 지불금제10장 향후과제와 대응방안참고 문헌