중점협력국 농업분야 현황 기초조사 : 6개국을 대상으로

영문 제목
Basic Facts about Agriculture and Rural Development in Six Focus Countries
우리나라는 2009년 11월 정식으로 OECD의 개발원조위원회(DAC) 회원이 된 이래 적극적으로 공적개발원조(ODA)의 양과 질적 내용을 제고하고 있다. 양적으로는 2015년까지 GNI 대비 0.25%의 금액까지 ODA 원조총액을 늘린다는 계획이다. 질적으로는 작년에 정부 각 부처가 모여 ‘선진화 방안’과 중장기 실천계획을 마련하고 보다 체계적으로 국제협력을 추진하기로 하였다. 현재 정부는 최빈국과 개도국에 대한 체계적인 지원을 위해 중점협력국을 대상으로 국가별 협력전략(Country Partnership Strategy, CPS)을 수립하고 있다. 국가 전체의 협력전략을 구성하는 각 분야별 전략은 대상국의 특성과 수요, 그리고 분야의 특성을 감안하여 수립되어야 함은 말할 나위가 없다. 이 보고서는 농업분야의 특성을 고려한 국가별 협력전략을 만들기 위하여 참고하여야 할 자료들 중 가장 기본적인 것들을 수집, 정리한 것이다. 특히 우리나라와 밀접한 관계를 가지고 있거나 향후 여러 가지로 볼 때 관계가 강화될 것으로 예상되는 나라들 중 6개 나라들을 대상으로 작성되었다.
In order to provide systematic assistance to least developed/developing countries, the Korean government is in the process of setting up a Country Partnership Strategy for each of Priority Partner Countries in 2010-2011. Among them, six countries are excluded from the Agriculture Country Partnership Strategy. In preparation for future agricultural cooperation and support strategy, this study examines the situation of agriculture and rural development in those six countries. The situations of those countries can be summarized as the following:1. BangladeshManagement and handling of natural disasters including drought and flood are not only a step to increase agricultural productivity but a core initiative of social and economic development policies. In 2005, the population was 153 million but it is expected to increase to 185 million in 2020 and to 222 million in 2050. Therefore, as the population grows, the farmland is placed under great pressure. In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for less than 20% of GDP and not much has changed since then. As of 2005, 49.6% of the population was living on less than a dollar a day but if the total population of 2009 is applied, the figure jumps to approximately 80 million. ODA accounted for 1.2% of GNI in 2009 and ODA volume per rural population is merely 0.9 dollar. In the government document “Moving Ahead: National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction 2008,” Bangladesh set a long-term goal to become a developing country by 2021 in celebration of its 50th anniversary of independence. The goal included the following 5 objectives:1. maintaining stability in macro-economy by focusing on economic growth of low-income population2. invigorating vitality in impoverished rural areas3. constructing necessary infrastructure4. providing social protection for the vulnerable5. integrating human resource development Based on its rich water resources, rice, the major agricultural crop, is cultivated widely. Wheat is also produced and there are various types of horticultural crops cultivated in highland regions. Also, small-scale fishing is commonly seen on the seaside. The size of fertile farmland is 790,000 ha., but this equals to only 0.05 ha. per capita. In 2008, 35.56 million people worked in the agricultural industry and this accounted for almost half of the total industry workers. Grain production per hectare has expanded 15% during 2000-2009 and the value-added per agriculture producer has jumped from $336 in 2000 to $435 in 2009. However, the value-added percentage of the agricultural sector in GDP has decreased from 25.2% in 2000 to 18.7% in 2009. The major agricultural products are rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugar cane, potatoes, cigarette, soy bean, oil, herb, fruits, beef, milk, and poultry. Depending on the season, different rice seeds are planted. Just like other low-income nations, rural areas support many of its population and in 2009, 72.4% of the Bangladeshi people lived in these areas. Since 85% of the poor live in rural areas, poverty-reduction through development of rural areas is in urgent need. “National Food Policy Plan of Action 2008-2015” and “Bangladesh Country Investment Plan: A Road Map towards Investment in Agriculture, Food Security and Nutrition 2010” are placed as agriculture and rural area development strategies. 2. UzbekistanAs a member state of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Uzbekistan is a country of vast land with rich natural and oil resources. It became an independent state from the Soviet Union in 1991. It adopted a presidential system and is gradually adopting market economy as well. But, unlike Russia and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan has not fervently demonstrated the desire for economic reform. Thus, privatization of companies is inactive and foreign capital attraction is slow. Through profits made from primary commodity export, the Uzbekistan government is carrying out an industrial policy of substituting imports by fostering manufacturing industries. Among primary industries, agriculture is the biggest industry, which accounted for 21.7% of GDP in 2007 and employed approximately 28% of economically active population. Top donors of Uzbekistan ODA are Japan, Germany, and the United States. South Korea has donated about $7 million and is the 14th largest contributor. Among the $1.325 billion donation from OECD/DAC members, only 2.4% is used for the agricultural sector. Farming is conducted by renting land in a permanent rental system. Since privatization of land has not been enforced, land is state-owned, except for special cases where law is enacted. Of the total land area, farmland is about 22,260,000 ha. (50%) and arable land is 4,050,000 ha. (9%). In 2008, about 2,750,000 people worked in agricultural sectors and of the total population, 63% were living in rural areas. Major agricultural products are wheat and raw cotton. As a raw material to export finished textile products, raw cotton is the major earner of foreign currency in Uzbekistan. Wheat is also an important crop for food self-sufficiency and is mostly produced to fulfill domestic demand. Through Goszakas (a procurement system of products for the state and municipal), the government buys agricultural products at a low price in a forceful way and exports at a high price exclusively. The profits made from this are redistributed as subsidies for domestic manufacturing sectors or are absorbed as government revenue. Of the total crop cultivation area, wheat accounts for about 90% of the area and is grown on 1,380,000 ha. As the biggest export product in agriculture, Uzbekistan’s raw cotton ranks the world’s 5th in production volume following the U.S, India, China, and Pakistan and ranks the world’s second in export volume. About 60% of its population is working in the raw cotton industry and in 2010, raw cotton accounted for about 20% of Uzbekistan’s total export volume. As part of the Interim Welfare Improvement Strategy (I-WIS), the government has created agriculture and rural development strategies and is making effort to increase agricultural productivity and farm income based on mostly sustainable farming. As for the farming sector, the government is focused on increasing productivity and income through efficient marketing of raw cotton and wheat. In the rural development sector, building efficient infrastructure to improve accessibility for farmers and constructing a clean drinking water system to improve the basic sanitation facilities for a better housing environment in the future are central plans. 3. AzerbaijanAzerbaijan has emerged as an important oil-producing nation in the Caspian Sea, as it produces plentiful petroleum and energy resources following the Middle East and Russia. The country holds 0.6% of the world’s oil reserve and 0.8% of the world’s natural gas. The completion of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline in 2005 led to an expansion of petroleum gas export and since then, the country has recorded a significant economic growth. The petroleum sector accounts for 40-50% of today’s GDP and as the country achieves rapid economic growth and acquires more public investment, the poverty rate has considerably dropped to 15.8% in 2008. Since the amount of ODA is fairly small, it only accounts for 0.6% of GNI. In terms of net expenditure, Azerbaijan ranks tenth among South and Central Asian countries in the total amount of aid from South Korea. The government’s mid and long-term poverty-reduction programs are the State Program on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2003-2005 (SPPRED) and the subsequent State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development 2006-15 (SPPRSD). These development programs aim to maintain macro-economic stability, create circumstances to expand the opportunity to generate income, improve accessibility and quality of basic health and education services, improve the infrastructure, and strengthen the social protection (for refugees and underprivileged people). Through the farmland reform that was initiated in 1996, state-owned farms and collective farms were dissolved, farmlands were distributed to farmers, and numerous small independent farmers emerged. Currently, 90% of agricultural production volume is produced from the private sector. In 2007, the people engaged in the agricultural sector accounted for 38.7% of the total working population. Still, agriculture produces the most GDP (7.1% in 2009) after petroleum and construction, and it is the second largest export industry with the largest labor force. Since Azerbaijan has 9 different climate zones, it produces a variety of agricultural products. The crop production volume per hectare is gradually increasing, but there is still a room for improvement since the production volume is about 2.6-2.7 tons per hectare. Top 20 products in terms of production value are livestock items, such as milk, beef, lamb, and chicken, and wheat and potatoes. Moreover, fruit and vegetables, such as tomato, apple, grapes, and watermelon, also make an important source of income. Under the Soviet rule, the livestock were artificially repressed. As a result, the amount of beef consumed by the Azerbaijan people was 37kg whereas the people of Soviet Union consumed 65kg on average. In the State Program of Development of Agrarian Sector in Azerbaijan 2002-2006 and the first State Program on Social and Economic Development 2004-2008, agriculture was chosen as the development priority. In the State Program for Agriculture 2008-15, which is currently in progress, agriculture is recognized as an important sector not only for food security but also for increasing employment and trade. Accordingly, reconstructing the irrigation network, fostering food processing companies, expanding the private sector's entry into the meat and dairy industry, increasing financial resources, and establishing research center are suggested as important measures (World Bank, 2010). However, the administrative barrier is blocking investment as the law and institutional framework to attract investment is unavailable. Especially the fact that government institutions such the Ministry of Agriculture are weak is seen as a major problem. 4. BoliviaBolivia is rich in energy resources such as petroleum and gas and mineral resources such as silver, tin, and lithium. International corporations and the government are at tug-of-war over privatization and nationalization on the usage of the nation’s resources. In Bolivia, 67% of total population live below the poverty line and 38% live in extreme poverty. In rural areas, 84% of people are estimated to be living below the poverty line. A data showed that in 2005, 34% of population lived with an income of less than $2/day. Half of the population is of Indio descent and 58% of Indios reside in cities and suburban areas in more economically-vulnerable conditions than non-Indios. Thanks to the upswing in the export of natural gas and minerals and increased consumption due to overseas remittance inflows, the country recorded 6.1% economic growth in 2008. But in 2009, the economy was affected by the global economic crisis and the deteriorated relation with the U.S. The composition of GDP by industry is as follows: agriculture 11%, manufacturing 37%, and service 52%. Agriculture has been diminishing in the long term, but manufacturing has been on the rise. ODA accounts for 4.4% of GNI and of the total ODA for South America, Bolivia receives 25% of it from the international community. Of the total aid that South Korea donates to South America, 24% (Rank 2) is given to Bolivia.After the formation of the new government, the neoliberal economic model based on market economy was deserted and the “Economic, Social, Communitarian and Productive Model” has been chosen. The environmental resource sector, which includes hydrocarbon, mining, and electrical business, was selected as a strategic sector to create national wealth, and the surplus from the sector is redistributed to processing, manufacturing, tourism, and agriculture to create jobs and income for the people. In 2006, the National Development Plan was established, focusing on poverty reduction and social integration. This plan aims to achieve 4 central goals: Productive Bolivia, Dignified Bolivia, Sovereign Bolivia, and Democratic and Participative Bolivia. The purpose of this plan is to reduce the population under the poverty line to 22% by 2015 and accomplish one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Farmland is about 3,610,000 ha. and arable land per capita is 0.4 ha. The economically-active population engaged in the agricultural sector was 1,906,000 in 2008. The top 20 agricultural products in terms of production value include livestock products such as beef, chicken, pork, and milk. Moreover, soy bean, sugar cane, plantain (a fruit similar to banana), potato, walnut, rice, sunflower seed, and corn are also important products. The rural population in Bolivia was about 3,349,000 in 2009, which accounted for 34% of the total population. The population of the poor is declining but 58.3% were living in poverty until 2009 and the situation is worsening in the rural areas, where 73.8% was reported to be living in poverty. 5. Solomon IslandsThe Solomon Islands is located on the east of Independent State of Papua New Guinea. The country is made up of approximately 1,000 islands. According to an estimate of 2010, the population is 610,000. The conflict between the Guadalcanal and Malaita tribes worsened and the nation was on the verge of a civil war, but a peace agreement was signed dramatically in 2000. In terms of value added, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries accounted for 37% and the service industry 51.6% in 2004. Thus, the economic structure is concentrated on these two sectors. The country recorded a negative growth of 2.2% in 2009. Timber, a major resource, has been excessively logged and forest reconstruction is urgently needed. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries have been praised as bright industries that can greatly help economically. Tourism is also an another bright industry. The National Development Strategy (NDS) for 2011-2015 strives to “Construct New, Unified, and Dynamic Solomon Islands” and proposes 3 policy goals: 1) improvement of quality of life by expanding opportunities for social and economic activity, 2) adjustment of population growth and concrete execution of family planning, and 3) maintenance of peace and security. The total amount of ODA has more than tripled from $68 million in 2000 to $206 million in 2009 after the peace agreement in 2003. Major contributors are Australia, New Zealand, EU, and Japan. Since the forest takes up most of the Solomon Islands, farmland accounts for about 3% (840㎢) of the total land. Of this land, arable land accounts for 16,000 ha. which holds a potential for development; but due to the small farm area, mass production of agricultural products is facing some difficulties. Moreover, livestock industries and forage crop production also face problems as they need massive land as well. Major export products are corpra and palm oil. In 2009, 82% of total population was reported to be residing in rural areas. 6. Sri LankaSince its independence in 1948, Sri Lanka has experienced disputes between Tamil and Ceylon. After the political truce with its hostile force in 2001, the country was normalized. However, long-term political disputes and civil war have caused poverty and political and economic instability that still persist today. Furthermore, the social infrastructure and foreign investment is weak and the structure of local government is deteriorating. Most of the territory has been damaged sine the 2004 tsunami and restoration is still in the process. Nevertheless, Sri Lanka has achieved an average of 5% growth in the past 30 years and has continued to grow since 2003. Recently it recorded about 7% growth. Since the country is an island of tropical climate, it is rich in marine products and mainly produces rice, tea, and coconut. Recently, privatization of tea production, which was managed by the central government, has been actively pursued. Out of its total population of 20,300,000, 85% live in rural areas and 31% (based on 2007) are engaged in agriculture. The total amount of ODA that the international community donates to Sri Lanka is about $650 million annually. Sri Lanka receives a fairly large amount of ODA as it ranks fifth among Central and South Asian countries. From 2001 to 2009, South Korea has donated $18.8 million annually, which makes Sri Lanka the largest recipient of ODA from South Korea among Central and South Asian countries. Through the “10-Year Development Framework (10YDF),” Sri Lanka is pursuing a fair growth in all sectors, particularly in development sectors where active participation of central and local governments is emphasized. Economic development through intense nurturing of private sectors and promotion of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) are included in the plan to help develop neglected areas. If the target growth of 10YDF is achieved, income per capita will be $3,960 in 2016 and all concrete goals of MDGs will be achieved as well. Agriculture accounted for 17% of GDP in 2008. In 2007, agricultural land was 2,360,000 ha. and arable land was about 970,000 ha. Rice is the most important product in terms of both production output and value. In terms of production value, tea, cocoa, and chicken are the main products after rice.Because rice accounts for 30% of agricultural GDP, it is the biggest agricultural product. About 800,000 farmers are engaged in rice production. Crop yield per unit in the past 10 years has inched up from 3.5ton/ha. in 1995 to 3.6ton/ha. in 2010. The first step in promoting the rice industry is to develop technology and apply it to increase productivity and produce high-quality rice. But, due to lack of research for technology development and insufficient infrastructure, there are many difficulties in solving the actual problems of work sites and the market. The government is trying hard to set up a rice policy that can help increase the production of high-quality rice for sufficient food supply and increased exports to niche markets. In 2008, the production volumes of tea and coconut, which are major export products, were 320,000 tons and 2,200,000 tons respectively. Tea products are exported to 20 countries around the world and in 2008, Sri Lanka exported 91,000 tons of tea and made a profit of $275 million. Japan is the biggest importer of Sri Lankan tea in terms of monetary amount and Iran is the biggest importer of Sri Lankan tea in terms of quantity. Researchers: Jang Heo, Dae-Seob Lee, Seung-Eun Chung, Jeong-Won HongResearch period: 2011. 2. - 2011. 4.E-mail address: heojang@krei.re.kr
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